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Beat Generation
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See also the companion article Beat Generation: Elements The Beat Generation is a group of American post-WWII writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, as well as the cultural phenomena that they both documented and inspired. Central elements of "Beat" culture included experimentation with drugs and alternative forms of sexuality, an interest in Eastern religion (WP), a rejection of materialism, and the idealizing of exuberant, unexpurgated means of expression and being.

Allen Ginsberg's (WP) Howl (1956), William S. Burroughs' (WP) Naked Lunch (1959) and Jack Kerouac's (WP) On the Road (1957) are among the best known examples of Beat literature.[1] Both Howl and Naked Lunch were the defenders in obscenity prosecutions whose defeat ultimately helped to liberalize publishing in the United States.[2][3] The members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, who celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity.

The original "Beat Generation" writers met in New York. Later, the central figures (with the exception of Burroughs) ended up together in San Francisco in the mid-1950s where they met and became friends with figures associated with the San Francisco Renaissance.

In the 1960s, elements of the expanding Beat movement were incorporated into the Hippie (WP) Wikipedia:counterculture.

[[Wikipedia:File:Hip Beat bookstore stockholm.jpg|upright|thumb|A section devoted to the beat generation at a bookstore in Wikipedia:Stockholm, Wikipedia:Sweden]]



Wikipedia:Gregory Corso worshiped Wikipedia:Percy Bysshe Shelley as a hero and was buried at the foot of Shelley's Grave in the Wikipedia:Protestant Cemetery, Rome. Ginsberg mentions Shelley's Adonais at the beginning of Kaddish, and cites it as a major influence on the composition of one of his most important poems. Michael McClure compared Ginsberg's Howl to Shelley's breakthrough poem Queen Mab.[4]

Ginsberg's most important Romantic influence was Wikipedia:William Blake.[5] Blake was the subject of Ginsberg's self-defining auditory hallucination and revelation in 1948.[6] Ginsberg would study Blake all his life. The first time Wikipedia:Michael McClure met Ginsberg, they talked about Blake: McClure saw him as a revolutionary; Ginsberg saw him as a prophet. Wikipedia:John Keats was also cited as an influence.

Early American sourcesEdit

[[Wikipedia:File:Hip BurroughsFile.jpg|thumb|150px|Front cover art for collected works of Wikipedia:William S. Burroughs: The Burroughs File]]

Important American inspirations for the Beats included Wikipedia:Henry David Thoreau, Wikipedia:Ralph Waldo Emerson, Wikipedia:Herman Melville and especially Wikipedia:Walt Whitman, who is addressed as the subject of one of Ginsberg's most famous poems ("A Supermarket in Cailfornia"). Wikipedia:Edgar Allan Poe is occasionally acknowledged, and Ginsberg claimed Wikipedia:Emily Dickinson was an influence on Beat poetry. The novel You Can't Win by Jack Black had a strong influence on Burroughs.[7]

French SurrealismEdit

Surrealism (WP) was still in many ways a vital movement in the 1950s. Carl Solomon introduced the work of Wikipedia:Antonin Artaud to Ginsberg, and the poetry of Wikipedia:André Breton had direct influence on the poem Kaddish. Rexroth, Ferlinghetti, Wikipedia:John Ashbery and Wikipedia:Ron Padgett translated French poetry. Second-generation Beat Wikipedia:Ted Joans was named "the only Afro-American Surrealist" by Breton.[8]

Wikipedia:Philip Lamantia introduced surrealist poetry to the original Beats.[9] The poetry of Gregory Corso and Bob Kaufman shows the influence of Surrealist poetry with its dream-like images and its random juxtaposition of dissociated images, and this influence can also be seen in more subtle ways in Ginsberg's poetry. As the legend goes, when meeting Wikipedia:Marcel Duchamp Ginsberg kissed his shoe and Corso cut off his tie.[10] Other shared Beat interests were Wikipedia:Guillaume Apollinaire, Wikipedia:Arthur Rimbaud and Wikipedia:Charles Baudelaire.


Though the Beat aesthetic posited itself against T. S. Eliot's creed of strict objectivity and literary Wikipedia:modernism's new classicism, certain modernist poets were major influences on the Beats, including Wikipedia:Ezra Pound, Wikipedia:William Carlos Williams and Wikipedia:H.D.. Pound was specifically important to Gary Snyder and Allen Ginsberg.

Wikipedia:William Carlos Williams was an influence on many of the Beats, with his encouragement to speak with an American voice instead of imitating the European poetic voice and European forms. When Williams came to Wikipedia:Reed College to give a lecture, then students Snyder, Whalen, and Welch were deeply impressed. Williams was a personal mentor to Allen Ginsberg, both being from Patterson, New Jersey.

Williams published several of Ginsberg's letters to him in his epic poem Paterson and wrote an introduction to two of Ginsberg's books. And many of the Beats (Ginsberg specifically) helped promote Williams' writing. Ferlinghetti's City Lights published a volume of his poetry.

Wikipedia:Gertrude Stein was subject of a book-length study by Wikipedia:Lew Welch. Admitted influences for Kerouac include Wikipedia:Marcel Proust, Wikipedia:Ernest Hemingway and Wikipedia:Thomas Wolfe.[11]

Influences on Western cultureEdit

While many authors claim to be directly influenced by the Beats, the Beat Generation phenomenon itself has had a pervasive influence on Western culture more broadly.

In 1982, Ginsberg published a summary of "the essential effects" of the Beat Generation:[12]

  • Spiritual liberation, sexual "revolution" or "liberation," i.e., gay liberation, somewhat catalyzing women's liberation, black liberation, Gray Panther activism.
  • Liberation of the world from Wikipedia:censorship.
  • Demystification and/or decriminalization of Wikipedia:cannabis and other Wikipedia:drugs.
  • The evolution of rhythm and blues into rock and roll as a high art form, as evidenced by Wikipedia:the Beatles, Wikipedia:Bob Dylan, and other popular musicians influenced in the later fifties and sixties by Beat generation poets' and writers' works.
  • The spread of ecological consciousness, emphasized early on by Wikipedia:Gary Snyder and Wikipedia:Michael McClure, the notion of a "Fresh Planet."
  • Opposition to the military-industrial machine civilization, as emphasized in writings of Burroughs, Huncke, Ginsberg, and Kerouac.
  • Attention to what Wikipedia:Kerouac called (after Spengler) a "second religiousness" developing within an advanced civilization.
  • Return to an appreciation of idiosyncrasy as against state regimentation.
  • Respect for land and indigenous peoples and creatures, as proclaimed by Kerouac in his slogan from On the Road: "The Earth is an Indian thing."

Counterculture effectsEdit


Main article: Beatniks

The term "Wikipedia:Beatnik" was coined by Wikipedia:Herb Caen of the Wikipedia:San Francisco Chronicle on 2 April 1958, a portmanteau on the name of the recent Russian satellite Wikipedia:Sputnik and Beat Generation. This suggested that beatniks were (1) "far out of the mainstream of society" and (2) "possibly pro-Communist".[13] Caen's term stuck and became the popular label associated with a new stereotype: the man with a Wikipedia:goatee and Wikipedia:beret reciting nonsensical poetry and playing bongos, while free-spirited women wearing black leotards dance.

An early example of the "beatnik stereotype" occurred in Wikipedia:Vesuvio's (a bar in North Beach) which employed the artist Wikipedia:Wally Hedrick to sit in the window dressed in full beard, turtleneck, and sandals, creating improvisational drawings and paintings. By 1958 tourists to San Francisco could take bus tours to view the North Beach Beat scene, prophetically anticipating similar tours of the Wikipedia:Haight-Ashbury district ten years later.[14] A variety of other small businesses also sprang up exploiting (and/or satirizing) the new craze. In 1959, Fred McDarrah started a "Rent-a-Beatnik" service in New York, taking out ads in Wikipedia:The Village Voice and sending Wikipedia:Ted Joans and friends out on calls to read poetry.[15] "Beatniks" appeared in many cartoons, movies, and TV shows of the time, perhaps the most famous being the character Wikipedia:Maynard G. Krebs in Wikipedia:The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. (1959–63)

While some of the original Beats embraced the beatniks, or at least found the parodies humorous (Ginsberg, for example, appreciated the parody in Pogo[16]) others criticized the beatniks as inauthentic posers. Kerouac feared that the spiritual aspect of his message had been lost and that many were using the Beat Generation as an excuse to be senselessly wild.[17]


Template:See also During the 1950s, aspects of the Beat movement metamorphosed into The Sixties Counterculture, accompanied by a shift in terminology from "[[beatnik" (WP) to "hippie" (WP).[18] Many of the original Beats remained active participants, notably Allen Ginsberg, who became a fixture of the anti-war movement. Notably, however, Jack Kerouac broke with Ginsberg and criticized the 60s protest movements as an excuse to be "spiteful"[19]

There were stylistic differences between beatniks and hippies – somber colors, dark shades, and goatees gave way to colorful psychedelic clothing and long hair. The beats were known for "playing it cool" (keeping a low profile)[20] but the hippies became known for "being cool" (displaying their individuality).

Beyond style, there were changes in substance: the Beats tended to be essentially apolitical, but the hippies became actively engaged with the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement.[21]

Literary legacyEdit

Among the emerging novelists of the 1960s and 1970s, a few were closely connected with Beat writers, most notably Wikipedia:Ken Kesey (One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest). Though they had no direct connection, other writers considered the Beats to be a major influence, including Wikipedia:Thomas Pynchon (Wikipedia:Gravity's Rainbow)[22] and Wikipedia:Tom Robbins (Even Cowgirls Get the Blues).

William Burroughs is considered a forefather of postmodern literature; he also inspired the Wikipedia:cyberpunk genre. [23][24][25]

One-time Beat writer LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka helped initiate the Wikipedia:Black Arts movement.[26]

Since there was focus on live performance among the Beats, many Slam poets have claimed to be influenced by the Beats. Wikipedia:Saul Williams, for example, cites Allen Ginsberg, Amiri Baraka, and Wikipedia:Bob Kaufman as major influences.[27]

The Wikipedia:Postbeat Poets are direct descendants of the Beat Generation. Their association with or tutelage under Ginsberg at The Naropa University's Wikipedia:Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics[28] and later at Wikipedia:Brooklyn College stressed the social-activist legacy of the Beats and created its own body of literature. Known authors are Wikipedia:Anne Waldman, Wikipedia:Antler (poet), Andy Clausen, David Cope, Wikipedia:Eileen Myles, Eliot Katz, Wikipedia:Paul Beatty, Wikipedia:Sapphire (author), Wikipedia:Lesléa Newman, Wikipedia:Jim Cohn, Sharon Mesmer, Randy Roark, Josh Smith, David Evans.

Rock and pop musicEdit

The Beats had a pervasive influence on Wikipedia:rock and roll and popular music, including Wikipedia:the Beatles, Wikipedia:Bob Dylan and Wikipedia:Jim Morrison: the Beatles spelled their name with an "a" partly as a Beat Generation reference,[29] and Lennon was a fan of Jack Kerouac.[30] Ginsberg later met and became friends with members of the Beatles. Paul McCartney played guitar on Ginsberg's album Ballad of the Skeletons.

Ginsberg was close friends with Bob Dylan[31] and toured with him on the Wikipedia:Rolling Thunder Revue in 1975. Dylan cites Ginsberg and Kerouac as major influences.

Jim Morrison cites Kerouac as one of his biggest influences, and fellow Doors member Ray Manzarek has said "We wanted to be beatniks".[32] Wikipedia:Michael McClure was also friends with members of Wikipedia:The Doors, at one point touring with keyboardist Wikipedia:Ray Manzarek.

Ginsberg was friends with Ken Kesey's Wikipedia:Merry Pranksters, a group of which Cassady was a member, which also included members of the Wikipedia:Grateful Dead. In the 1970s, Burroughs was friends with Wikipedia:Mick Jagger, Wikipedia:Lou Reed, and Wikipedia:Patti Smith.

British Wikipedia:progressive rock band Wikipedia:Soft Machine is named after Burroughs' novel Wikipedia:The Soft Machine.

Singer-songwriter Wikipedia:Tom Waits, a Beat fan, wrote "Jack and Neal" about Kerouac and Cassady, and recorded "On the Road" (a song written by Kerouac after finishing the novel) with Primus. He later collaborated with Burroughs on the theatrical work Wikipedia:The Black Rider.

There was a resurgence of interest in the beats among bands in the 1980s. Ginsberg worked with Wikipedia:the Clash. Burroughs worked with Wikipedia:Sonic Youth, Wikipedia:R.E.M., Wikipedia:Kurt Cobain, and Ministry, amongst others. Wikipedia:Bono of Wikipedia:U2 cites Burroughs as a major influence,[33][34] and Burroughs appeared briefly in a U2 video in 1997.[35] Wikipedia:Laurie Anderson featured Burroughs on her 1984 album Wikipedia:Mister Heartbreak and in her 1986 concert film, Home of the Brave. Wikipedia:King Crimson produced the album Beat inspired by the Beat Generation.

"Mods" Edit

[[Wikipedia:File:Hip Old Mods photo.jpg|thumb|220px|A photograph of two mods on a customised scooter, a 1962 Lambretta 175]]


Main article: Wikipedia:Mod (subculture)

Sociologist Wikipedia:Simon Frith asserts that the mod subculture had its roots in the 1950s beatnik coffee bar culture, which catered to art school students in the radical Wikipedia:bohemian scene in London.[36] Steve Sparks, who claims to be one of the original mods, agrees that before mod became commercialised, it was essentially an extension of the beatnik culture: "It comes from ‘modernist’, it was to do with modern jazz and to do with Sartre" and Wikipedia:existentialism.[37] Sparks argues that "Mod has been much misunderstood... as this working-class, scooter-riding precursor of Wikipedia:skinheads."

Two other scholars give a slightly different take: Wikipedia:Dick Hebdige claims that the progenitors of the mod subculture "appear to have been a group of working-class dandies, possibly descended from the devotees of the Italianite [fashion] style."[38] Mary Anne Long disagrees, stating that "first hand accounts and contemporary theorists point to the Wikipedia:Jewish upper-working or middle-class of London’s East End and suburbs."[37]

WWII wartime legislation had kept (and still does), Wikipedia:Public houses closed by 11 pm; coffee bars were attractive to British youths, because, they were open until the early hours of the morning. Coffee bars had Wikipedia:jukeboxes, which in some cases reserved some of the space in the machines for the students' own records. In the late 1950s, coffee bars were associated with jazz and blues, but in the early 1960s, they began playing more R&B music. Frith notes that although coffee bars were originally aimed at middle-class art school students, they began to facilitate an intermixing of youths from different backgrounds and classes.[39] At these venues, which Frith calls the "first sign of the youth movement", youths would meet collectors of R&B and blues records, who introduced them to new types of African-American music, which the teens were attracted to for its rawness and authenticity. They also watched French and Italian Wikipedia:art films and read Italian magazines to look for style ideas.[40] According to Hebdige, the mod subculture gradually accumulated the identifying symbols that later came to be associated with the scene, such as scooters, amphetamine pills, and music.[38]


Wikipedia:Norman Podhoretz, a student at Columbia with Kerouac and Ginsberg, later became a critic of the Beats. His 1958 Partisan Review article "The Know-Nothing Bohemians," was a vehement critique primarily of Kerouac's On the Road and The Subterraneans, as well as Ginsberg's Howl.[41] His central criticism is that the Beat embrace of spontaneity is bound up in an anti-intellectual worship of the "primitive" that can easily turn toward mindlessness and violence. Podhoretz asserted that there was a link between the Beats and criminal delinquents.

Ginsberg responded in a 1958 interview with Wikipedia:The Village Voice,[42] specifically addressing the charge that the Beats destroyed "the distinction between life and literature." "The bit about anti-intellectualism is a piece of vanity, we had the same education, went to the same school, you know there are 'Intellectuals' and there are intellectuals. Podhoretz is just out of touch with twentieth-century literature, he's writing for the eighteenth-century mind. We have a personal literature now—Proust, Wolfe, Faulkner, Joyce."[43]</blockquote>

Internal criticismEdit

In a 1974 interview,[44] Gary Snyder comments on the subject of "casualties" of the Beat Generation:[45]

Kerouac was a casualty too. And there were many other casualties that most people have never heard of, but were genuine casualties. Just as, in the 60s, when Allen and I for a period there were almost publicly recommending people to take acid. When I look back on that now I realize there were many casualties, responsibilities to bear.

The Beats comment on the Beat GenerationEdit

"The so-called Beat Generation was a whole bunch of people, of all different nationalities, who came to the conclusion that society sucked."
- Wikipedia:Amiri Baraka
"John Clellon Holmes... and I were sitting around trying to think up the meaning of the Lost Generation and the subsequent existentialism and I said 'You know John, this is really a beat generation'; and he leapt up and said, 'That's it, that's right!'"[46]
- Wikipedia:Jack Kerouac
"But yet, but yet, woe, woe unto those who think that the Beat Generation means crime, delinquency, immorality, amorality ... woe unto those who attack it on the grounds that they simply don’t understand history and the yearning of human souls ... woe in fact unto those who make evil movies about the Beat Generation where innocent housewives are raped by beatniks! ... woe unto those who spit on the Beat Generation, the wind’ll blow it back."
- Wikipedia:Jack Kerouac
Three writers do not a generation make.
- Wikipedia:Gregory Corso[47] (sometimes also attributed to Wikipedia:Gary Snyder).
"Nobody knows whether we were catalysts or invented something, or just the froth riding on a wave of its own. We were all three, I suppose."
- Wikipedia:Allen Ginsberg[48]

Films about the Beat GenerationEdit

  • Jack Kerouac (wrote), Robert Frank and Alfred Leslie (directed) Pull My Daisy (1958)
  • Richard Lerner and Wikipedia:Lewis MacAdams (directed) Whatever Happened To Kerouac? (1986) Documentary.
  • Chuck Workman (wrote and directed) The Source (1999)
  • Wikipedia:Gary Walkow (wrote and directed) Beat (2000)
  • Allen Ginsberg Live in London (1995)
  • Howl (2010)

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Campbell, James. This Is the Beat Generation: New York–San Francisco-Paris. LA: University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 0-520-23033-7
  • Cook, Bruce The Beat Generation: The tumultuous '50s movement and its impact on today. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971. ISBN 0-684-12371-1.
  • Gifford, Barry and Lawrence LeeJack's Book An Oral Biography Of Jack Kerouac, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978. ISBN 0-312-43942-3
  • Grace, NancyJack Kerouac and the Literary Imagination, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. ISBN 1-4039-6850-0
  • Hemmer, Kurt ed. Encyclopedia of Beat Literature. Facts on File, 2006. ISBN 0-8160-4297-7
  • Hrebeniak, Michael. Action Writing: Jack Kerouac's Wild Form, Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2006.
  • Johnson, Ronna C. and Nancy Grace Girls Who Wore Black: Women Writing the Beat Generation. Rutgers, 2003. ISBN 081353065
  • McDarrah, Fred W. and Gloria S. McDarrah. Beat Generation: Glory Days in Greenwich Village Schirmer Books (September 1996) ISBN 0-8256-7160-4
  • McNally, Dennis. Desolate Angel: Jack Kerouac, the Beat Generation, and America. NY: DeCapo, 2003. ISBN 0-306-81222-3
  • Miles, Barry. The Beat Hotel: Ginsberg, Burroughs & Corso in Paris, 1957–1963. NY: Grove Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8021-3817-9
  • Sanders, Ed Tales of Beatnik Glory (second edition, 1990) ISBN 0-8065-1172-9
  • Theado, Matt (ed.). The Beats: A Literary Reference. NY: Carrol & Graff, 2002. ISBN 0-7867-1099-3
  • Watson, Steven. The Birth of the Beat Generation: Visionaries, Rebels, and Hipsters, 1944–1960. NY: Pantheon, 1998. ISBN 0-375-70153-2


  1. Charters (1992) The Portable Beat Reader
  2. Ann Charters, introduction, to Beat Down to Your Soul, Penguin Books (2001) ISBN 0-14-10.0151-8 p. xix "[...] the conclusion of the obscenity trial in San Francisco against Lawrence Ferlinghetti for publishing Ginsberg's Howl and Other Poerms [...] in which Judge Clayton Horn concluded for the defendant that 'Howl' had what he called 'redeeming social content.' ", p. xxxiii "After the successful Howl trial, outspoken and subversive literary magazines sprung up like wild mushrooms throughout the United States."
  3. Ted Morgan, Literary Outlaw, Avon, New York, 1988. p 347, trade paper edition ISBN 0-380-70882-5 "The ruling on Naked Lunch in effect marked the end of literary censorship in the United States."
  4. McClure, Michael. Scratching the Beat Surface
  5. "Throughout these interviews [in Spontaneous Mind] Ginsberg returns to his high praise of William Blake and Walt Whitman. Ginsberg obviously loves Blake the visionary and Whitman the democratic sensualist, and indeed Ginsberg's own literary personality can be construed as a union of these forces." Edmund White, Arts and letters (2004), p.104 ISBN 1573441953, 9781573441957
  6. "Ginsberg's intense relationship to Blake can be traced to a seemingly mystical experience he had during the summer of 1948." ibid, p.104
  7. Ted Morgan, Literary Outlaw (1988), p.36-37 of trade paper edition, ISBN 0 "When Billy [William Burroughs] was thirteen, he came across a book that would have an enormous impact on his life and work. Written by someone calling himself Jack Black, You Can't Win was the memoirs of a professional thief and drug addict."
  8. According to William Lawlor: "André Breton, the founder of surrealism and Joans's [sic] mentor and friend, famously called Joans the 'only Afro-American surrealist' (qtd. by James Miller in _Dictionary of Literary Biography_ 16: 268)." p.159, Beat culture: lifestyles, icons, and impact, ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 1851094008, 9781851094004 Ted Joans himself said: "The late Andre Breton the founder of surrealism said that I was the only Afro-American surrealist and welcomed me to the exclusive surrealist group in Paris." page 102, For Malcolm: poems on the life and the death of Malcolm X, Dudley Randall and Margaret G. Burroughs, eds, Broadside Press, Detroit, 1967 There is some question about how familiar Breton was with Afro-American literature: "If it is true that the late André Breton, a founder of the surrealist movement, considered Ted Joans the only Afro-American surrealist, he apparently had not read Kaufman; at any rate, Breton had much to learn about Afro-American poetry." Bernard W. Bell, "The Debt to Black Music", Black World/Negro Digest March 1973, p. 86
  9. Allen Ginsberg commented: "His interest in techniques of surreal composition notoriously antedates mine and surpasses my practice ... I authoritatively declare Lamantia an American original, soothsayer even as Poe, genius in the language of Whitman, native companion and teacher to myself." Allen Ginsberg, Bill Morgan, Deliberate Prose: Selected Essays 1952-1995, p. 442, "Philip Lamantia, Lamantia As Forerunner", HarperCollins, 2001, ISBN 0060930810, 9780060930813
  10. Miles (2001) Ginsberg
  11. "In 'Author's Introduction,' which is included in Lonesome Traveler (1960), Kerouac ... goes on to mention Jack London, William Saroyan, and Ernest Hemingway as early influences and mentions Thomas Wolfe as a subsequent influence." William Lawlor, Beat culture: lifestyles, icons, and impact, 2005 ISBN 1851094008, 9781851094004 p. 153 "And if one considers The Legend of Dulouz, one must acknowledge the influence of Marcel Proust. Like Proust, Kerouac makes his powerful memory the source of much of his writing and again like Proust, Kerouac envisions his life's literary output as one great book." ibid, p. 154
  12. Ginsberg, Allen A Definition of the Beat Generation, from Friction, 1 (Winter 1982), revised for Beat Culture and the New America: 1950–1965,
  13. Herb Caen (1997-02-06). "Pocketful of Notes". Wikipedia:San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2010-01-30.  "...Look magazine, preparing a picture spread on S.F.'s Beat Generation (oh, no, not AGAIN!), hosted a party in a No. Beach house for 50 Beatniks, and by the time word got around the sour grapevine, over 250 bearded cats and kits were on hand, slopping up Mike Cowles' free booze. They're only Beat, y'know, when it comes to work..."
  14. William T. Lawlor ed., Beat Culture: Lifestyles, Icons and Impact, pg. 309.
  15. Arthur and Kit Knight ed., The Beat Vision, Paragon House, New York, 1987, pg. 281
  16. Ginsberg, Howl: Original Draft Facsimile,
  17. "Tracing his personal definition of the term Beat to the fufullments offered by beatitude, Kerouac scorned sensationalistic phrases like "Beat mutiny" and "Beat insurrection," which were being repeated ad nauseum in media accounts. 'Being a Catholic,' he told conservative journalist William F. Buckley Jr in a late-sixties television appearance, 'I believe in order, tenderness, and piety,'" David Sterritt, Screening the Beats: media culture and the Beat sensibility, 2004, p.25, ISBN 0809325632, 9780809325634
  18. Wikipedia:Ed Sanders said in an interview in the film The Source (1999) (at the 1hr 17secs point) that he observed the change immediately after the 1967 Human Be-In (WP) event: "And right after the Be-In all of a sudden you were no longer a beatnik, you were a hippie." Similar remarks by Sanders: an interview with Jessa Piaia in SQUAWK Magazine, Issue #55, commented: "I've begun Tales of Beatnik Glory, Volume 3. Set in the Hippie era, it defines that delicate time when reporters no longer called us 'Beatnik,' but started to call us 'Hippie.'",; "There was a big article January of 1966, on page one of the Cleveland Plain Dealer, under the heading 'Beatnik Leader Wants Marijuana.' It was just before "h]ippie" replaced 'Beatnik.'" Ed Sanders, Larry Smith, Ingrid Swanberg, D.A. Levy & the mimeograph revolution (2007)
  19. Gore Vidal quotes Ginsberg speaking of Kerouac: "'You know around 1968, when we were all protesting the Vietnam War, Jack wrote me that the war was just an excuse for 'you Jews to be spiteful again.'" Gore Vidal, Palimpsest: a memoir, 1995, ISBN 0679440580
  20. for example, see the meaning of "cool" as explained in the Del Close, John Brant spoken word album Wikipedia:How to Speak Hip from 1959
  21. Allen Ginsberg comments on this in the film "The Source" (1999); Gary Snyder discusses the issue in a 1974 interview, collected in The Beat Vision (1987) Paragon House. ISBN 0-913729-40-X; ISBN 0-913729-41-8 (pbk), edited by Arthur Winfield Knight: "... the next key point was Castro taking over Cuba. The apolitical quality of Beat thought changed with that. It sparked quite a discussion and quite a dialogue; many people had been basic pacifists with considerable disillusion with Marxian revolutionary rhetoric. At the time of Castro's victory, it had to be rethought again. Here was a revolution that had used violence and that was apparently a good thing. Many people abandoned the pacifist position at that time or at least began to give more thought to it. In any case, many people began to look to politics again as having possibilities. From that follows, at least on some levels, the beginning of civil rights activism, which leads through our one whole chain of events: the Movement.

    We had little confidence in our power to make any long range or significant changes. That was the 50s, you see. It seemed that bleak. So that our choices seemed entirely personal existential lifetime choices that there was no guarantee that we would have any audience, or anybody would listen to us; but it was a moral decision, a moral poetic decision. Then Castro changed things, then Martin Luther King changed things ..."
  22. Pynchon, Thomas. Slow Learner. Vintage Classics, 2007. ISBN 0-09-953251-4
  23. "Sterling also identifies [in Mirroshades (1986)] postmodernist authors Thomas Pynchon and William S. Burroughs as forerunners of cyberpunk." Keith Booker, Anne-Marie Thomas, The science fiction handbook 2009, Page 111, ISBN 1405162058, 9781405162050
  24. "... it should hardly be surprising that to discover that the work of William S Burroughs had a profound impact on both punk music and cyberpunk science fiction." Larry McCaffery, Storming the reality studio: a casebook of cyberpunk and postmodern science fiction, 1991, p. 305
  25. "Cyberpunk writers acknowledge their literary debt to Burroughs and Pynchon, as well as to New Wave writers from the 1960s and 1970s such as J.G. Ballard and Samuel Delany.", Jenny Wolmark, Aliens and others: science fiction, feminism and postmodernism 1994, ISBN 0877454477, 9780877454472
  26. "(LeRoi Jones) ... is best known as a major cultural leader, one of the African American writers who galvanized a second Black Renaissande, the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s ..." -- page xi, "Preface", Komozi Woodard, A nation within a nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Black power politics (1999, UNC Press) ISBN 0807847615, 9780807847619
  27. Williams, Saul. Said the Shotgun to the Head. MTV, 2003, p.184, ISBN 0-7434-7079-6
  28. "During the eighties, Ginsberg used his position as director of the writing department at Naropa, introduced his classes to the wide range of literature of the Beat Generation. Many of his students became poets and educators and are grouped together under an entirely new category that has been labeled Postbeat Poets." Bill Morgan, William Morgan, The Typewriter Is Holy: The Complete, Uncensored History of the Beat Generation 2010, p. 245, ISBN 1416592423, 9781416592426
  29. "... the name Beatles comes from 'Beat' ..." Regina Weinreich, "Books: The Birth of the Beat Generation", The Sunday New York Times Book Review, January 11, 1996, a review of Steven Watson's THE BIRTH OF THE BEAT GENERATION: Visionaries, Rebels, and Hipsters 1944-1960
  30. Ellis Amburn describes a telephone conversation with Jack Kerouac: "John Lennon subsequently contacted Kerouac, revealing that the band's name was derived from 'Beat.' 'He was sorry he hadn't come to see me when they played Queens,' Kerouac said, referring to the Beatles Shea Stadium concert in 1965." Amburn, Ellis Subterranean Kerouac: the hidden life of Jack Kerouac, p. 342, ISBN 0-312-20677-1
  31. Wills, D. "Father & Son: Allen Ginsberg and Bob Dylan," in Wills, D. (ed.) Beatdom Vol. 1 (Mauling Press: Dundee, 2007) p. 90-93
  32. "As Ray Manzarek recalls when Morrison was studying at UCLA: 'He certainly had a substantial investment in books. They filled an entire wall of his apartment. His reading was very eclectic. It was typical of the early- to mid-sixties hipster student. [...] And lots of Beatniks. We wanted to _be_ beatniks. But we were too young. We came a little too late, but we were worshippers of the Beat Generation. All the Beat writers filled Morrison's shelves [...]' (Manzarek 1999, 77)" Sheila Whiteley, Too much too young: popular music, age and gender (2005, Routledge)
  33. Bono comments approvingly on the Burroughs cut up method: "That's what the Burroughs cut up method is all about. You cut up the past to find the future." As quoted by John Geiger in Nothing is true -- everything is permitted: the life of Brion Gysin p. 273, Attributed to John Waters Race of the Angels: The Genesis of U2 (London, Fourth Estate, 1994) ISBN 1857022106 ISBN 978-1857022100
  34. "... author WILLIAM S. BURROUGHS, 84, whose nihilistic novels have influenced U2 front man BONO ... ", Martha Pickerill Time, June 2, 1997,,9171,986451,00.html
  35. "The next video, Last Night on Earth was shot in Kansas City, with beat author William S. Burroughs making a cameo." p. 96 David Kootnikoff, U2: A Musical Biography (2010) ISBN 0313365237, 9780313365232
  36. Simon Frith and Howard Horne. Art into Pop. 1987. Pages 86-87
  37. 37.0 37.1 A Cultural History of the Italian Motorscooter. A Senior Thesis Presented To Prof. Anne Cook Saunders on December 17, 1998 by Mary Anne Long. Available online at:
  38. 38.0 38.1 Hebdige, Dick. "The Meaning of Mod". In Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain. Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson, eds. London. Routledge, 1993. Page 167
  39. Simon Frith and Howard Horne. Art into Pop. 1987. Page 87
  40. Mod: Clean Living Under Very Difficult Circumstances: a Very British Phenomenon By Terry Rawlings. Published 2000. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0711968136
  41. Collected in The Norman Podhoretz Reader by Norman Podhoretz, Thomas L. Jeffers, Paul Johnson. Free Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4165-6830-8
  42. In: Spontaneous Mind
  43. Ginsberg, Allen, Spontaneous Mind: Selected Interviews, 1958–1996, p. 5 ISBN 0-06-093082-9
  44. Knight, Arthur Winfield. Ed. The Beat Vision (1987) Paragon House. ISBN 0-913729-40-X; ISBN 0-913729-41-8 (pbk)
  45. Charters (2001) Beat Down to Your Soul
  46. Rees, Nigel. Sterling: Brewer's Famous Quotations: 5000 Quotations and the Stories Behind Them, 2006.
  47. Lerner, Richard and Lewis MacAdams, directors "What Ever Happened to Kerouac?" (1985)
  48. Burns, Glen Great Poets Howl: A Study of Allen Ginsberg's Poetry, 1943–1955 ISBN 3-8204-7761-6


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