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Chinese food therapy

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Chinese food therapy (Template:Zh, also called nutrition therapy and dietary therapy) is a mode of dieting rooted in Chinese understandings of the effects of food on the human organism,[1] and centred on concepts such as eating in moderation.[2][3] Its basic precepts are a mix of folk views and concepts drawn from Wikipedia:Traditional Chinese medicine.

Food therapy has long been a common approach to health among Wikipedia:Chinese people both in Wikipedia:China and overseas, and was popularized for western readers in the 1990s with the publication of books like The Tao of Healthy Eating (Flaws 1995a) and The Wisdom of the Chinese Kitchen (Young 1999)[4] which also cites Flaws 1995b, Zhao & Ellis 1998, and Simonds 1999}}


A number of ancient Chinese cookbooks and treatises on food (now lost) display an early Chinese interest in food, but no known focus on its medical value.[5] The literature on "nourishing life" (yangsheng Template:Lang) integrated advice on food within broader advice on how to attain immortality. Such books, however, are only precursors of "dietary therapy", because they did not systematically describe the effect of individual food items.[6]

The earliest extant Chinese dietary text is a chapter of Wikipedia:Sun Simiao's Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold (Qianjin Fang 千金方), which was completed in the 650s during the Wikipedia:Tang dynasty.[7] Sun's work contains the earliest known use of the term "food (or dietary) therapy" (shiliao).[8] Sun stated that he wanted to present current knowledge about food so that people would first turn to food rather than drugs when suffering from an ailment.[9] His chapter contains 154 entries divided into four sections – on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and meat – in which Sun explains the properties of individual foodstuffs with concepts borrowed from the Wikipedia:Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon: gi, the viscera, vital essence (jing Template:Lang), and correspondences between the Wikipedia:Five Phases, the "five flavors" (sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty), and the five grains.[10] He also set a large number of "dietary interdictions" (shijin Template:Lang), some based on calendrical notions (no water chestnuts in the 7th month), others on purported interactions between foods (no clear wine with horse meat) or between different flavors.[11]

Sun Simiao's disciple Meng Shen (Template:Lang; 621–713) compiled the first work entirely devoted to the therapeutic value of food: the Materia Dietetica (Shiliao bencao Template:Lang; lit., "food therapy Wikipedia:materia medica"). This work has not survived, but it is quoted in later texts – like the 10th-century Japanese text Wikipedia:Ishinpō – and a fragment of it has been found among the Wikipedia:Dunhuang manuscripts. Surviving excerpts show that Meng gave less importance to dietary prohibitions than Sun, and that he provided information on how to prepare foodstuffs rather than just describe their properties.[12] The works of Sun Simiao and Meng Shen established the genre of materia dietetica and shaped its development in the following centuries.[13]


Although the precepts of Chinese food therapy are neither systematic nor identical in all times and places, some basic concepts can be isolated.[14] Food items are classified as "heating" (re Template:Lang; "hot") or "cooling" (liang Template:Lang; "cool"). Heating food is typically "high-calorie, subjected to high heat in cooking, spicy or bitter, or 'hot' in color (red, orange)", and includes red meat, innards, baked and deep-fried goods, and alcohol.[15] They are to be avoided in the summer and can be used to treat "cold" illnesses like excessive pallor, watery feces, fatigue, chills, and low body temperature caused by a number of possible causes, including Wikipedia:anemia. Green vegetables are the most typical cooling food, which is "low-calorie, watery, soothing or sour in taste, or 'cool' in color (whitish, green)". They are recommended for "hot" conditions: rashes, dryness or redness of skin, heartburns, and other "symptoms similar to those of a burn", but also sore throat, swollen gums, and constipation.[16]

See alsoEdit



  1. Engelhardt|2001|p=173
  2. Template:Cite journal
  3. Template:Cite journal
  4. Barnes|2013|p=339–341
  5. Engelhardt|2001|p=174–175
  6. Engelhardt|2001|p=175–176
  7. Engelhardt|2001|p=176
  8. Engelhardt|2001|p=173
  9. Engelhardt|2001|p=177
  10. Engelhardt|2001|pp=178–181
  11. Engelhardt|2001|pp=181–183
  12. Engelhardt|2001|pp=184–187
  13. Engelhardt|2001|p=187
  14. Anderson|2013|pp=259–260
  15. Anderson|2013|pp=259–260
  16. Anderson|2013|pp=259–260

Works citedEdit

  • Anderson, Eugene N. (2013), "Folk Nutritional Therapy in Modern China", in TJ Hinrichs and Linda L. Barnes (eds.), Chinese Medicine and Healing: An Illustrated History, Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, pp. 259–260, Template:Citation/identifier .
  • Barnes, Linda L. (2013), "A World of Chinese Medicine and Healing: Part Two", in TJ Hinrichs and Linda L. Barnes (eds.), Chinese Medicine and Healing: An Illustrated History, Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, pp. 334–378, Template:Citation/identifier .
  • Engelhardt, Ute (2001), "Dietetics in Tang China and the first extant works of material dietetica", in Elisabeth Hsü (ed.), Innovation in Chinese Medicine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 173–191, Template:Citation/identifier .
  • Flaws, Bob (1995a), The Book of Jook: Chinese Medicinal Porridges—A Healthy Alternative to the Typical Western Breakfast, Boulder, Colorado: Blue Poppy Press .
  • Flaws, Bob (1995b), The Tao of Healthy Eating: Dietary Wisdom According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine, Boulder, Colorado: Blue Poppy Press .
  • Simonds, Nina (1999), A Spoonful of Ginger: Irresistible Health-Giving Recipes from Asian Kitchens, New York: Knopf .
  • Young, Grace (1999), The Wisdom of the Chinese Kitchen: Classic Family Recipes for Celebration and Healing, New York: Simon and Schuster .
  • Zhao, Zhuo; Ellis, George (1998), The Healing Cuisine of China: 300 Recipes for Vibrant Health and Longevity, Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press .

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