|This article contains content from Wikipedia|
An article on this subject has been nominated
for deletion at Wikipedia:
Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/
Good Agricultural Practices
Current versions of the GNU FDL article on WP may contain information useful to the improvement of this article
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) are specific methods which, when applied to agriculture, produce results that are in harmony with the values of the proponents of those practices. There are numerous competing definitions of what methods constitute "Good Agricultural Practices".
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations GAPEdit
The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) uses Good Agricultural Practices as a collection of principles to apply for on-farm production and post-production processes, resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food agricultural products, while taking into account economical, social and environmental sustainability.
GAPs may be applied to a wide range of farming systems and at different scales. They are applied through sustainable agricultural methods, such as integrated pest management, integrated fertilizer management and conservation agriculture. They rely on four principles:
- Economically and efficiently produce sufficient (food security), safe (food safety) and nutritious food (food quality);Template:Cite book
- Sustain and enhance Wikipedia:natural resources;
- Maintain viable farming enterprises and contribute to sustainable livelihoods;
- Meet cultural and social demands of society.
The concept of GAPs has changed in recent years because of a rapidly changing agriculture, Wikipedia:globalization of world trade, food crisis (Wikipedia:mad cow disease), Wikipedia:nitrate pollution of water, appearance of Wikipedia:pesticide resistance, Wikipedia:soil erosion...
GAPs applications are being developed by governments, NGOs and private sector to meet farmers and transformers needs and specific requirements. However, many think these applications are only rarely made in a holistic or coordinated way.
They provide the opportunity to assess and decide on which Wikipedia:farming practices to follow at each step in the production process. For each agricultural production system, they aim at allowing a comprehensive management strategy, providing for the capability for tactical adjustments in response to changes. The implementation of such a management strategy requires knowing, understanding, planning, measuring, monitoring, and record-keeping at each step of the production process. Adoption of GAPs may result in higher production, transformation and marketing costs, hence finally higher costs for the consumer. To minimize production costs and maintain the quality of agri-food, ACIAR offers a series of advisable online publications to benefit farmers Wikipedia:Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. "Research that works for developing countries and Australia". http://www.aciar.gov.au/publication/publicationsbydownload. Retrieved 25 November 2007.
GAPs require maintaining a common Wikipedia:database on integrated production techniques for each of the major agro-ecological area (see Wikipedia:ecoregion), thus to collect, analyze and disseminate information of good practices in relevant geographical contexts.
United States Department of Agriculture GAP/GHP ProgramEdit
The Wikipedia:United States Department of Agriculture currently operates an audit/certification program to verify that farms use Good Agricultural Practices and/or Good Handling Practices. Unlike the FAO guidelines, the USDA guidelines focus on food safety, and do not address topics such as animal welfare, biodiversity, or the use of antibiotics and hormones. The program was developed after the Wikipedia:New Jersey Department of Agriculture petitioned the USDA to create a GAP & GHP audit program as the result of farmers being asked by wholesale buyers to demonstrate their adherence to GAP and GHP.
The USDA GAP/GHP guidelines and principles are based upon a 1998 Wikipedia:Food & Drug Administration publication entitled, "Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables."
- See Wikipedia:Compost, Wikipedia:Mulch, Wikipedia:Potting soil, Wikipedia:Organic fertilizer, Wikipedia:Soil borne infectious diseases
- Reducing Wikipedia:erosion by wind and water through hedging and ditching
- Application of Wikipedia:fertilizers at appropriate moments and in adequate doses (i.e., when the plant needs the fertilizer), to avoid run-off (see Wikipedia:nitrogen balance method).
- Maintaining or restoring soil organic content, by Wikipedia:manure application, use of Wikipedia:grazing, Wikipedia:crop rotation
- Reduce soil compaction issues (by avoiding using heavy mechanical devices)
- Maintain soil structure, by limiting heavy tillage practicesFAO : GAP : FAO GAP Principles : Soil
- In situ green manuring by growing pulse crops like cowpea, horse gram, sunhemp etc.
- Practice scheduled Wikipedia:irrigation, with monitoring of plant needs, and soil water reserve status to avoid water loss by drainage
- Prevent soil Wikipedia:salinization by limiting water input to needs, and recycling water whenever possible
- Avoid crops with high water requirements in a low availability region
- Avoid drainage and fertilizer run-off
- Maintain permanent soil covering, in particular in winter to avoid nitrogen run-off
- Manage carefully water table, by limiting heavy output of water
- Restore or maintain wetlands (see Wikipedia:marshlands)
- Provide good water points for livestock (FAO : GAP : FAO GAP Principles : Water)
- Harvest water in situ by digging catch pits, crescent bunds across slope
- Respect of animal well-being (freedom from hunger and thirst; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury or disease; freedom to express normal behavior; and freedom from fear and distress)
- Avoid nontherapeutic mutilations, surgical or invasive procedures, such as tail docking and debeaking;
- Avoid negative impacts on landscape, environment and life: contamination of land for grazing, food, Wikipedia:water and Wikipedia:air
- Check stocks and flows, maintain structure of Wikipedia:systems
- Prevent chemical and medical residues from entering the Wikipedia:food chain
- Minimize non-therapeutic use of Wikipedia:antibiotics or Wikipedia:hormones
- Avoid feeding animals with animal wastes or animal matter (reducing the risk of alien viral or transgenic genes, or prions such as mad cow disease),
- Minimize transport of live animals (by foot, rail or road) (reducing the risk of Wikipedia:epidemics, e.g., Wikipedia:foot and mouth disease)
- Prevent waste run-off (e.g. nitrate contamination of water tables from pigs), nutrient loss and Wikipedia:greenhouse gas emissions (Wikipedia:methane from cows)
- Prefer Wikipedia:safety measures standards in manipulation of equipment
- Apply Wikipedia:traceability processes on the whole production chain (breeding, feed, medical treatment...) for Wikipedia:consumer security and feedback possibility in case of a food crisis (e.g., dioxin).FAO : GAP : FAO GAP Principles : Animal Health and Welfare
- Wikipedia:quality assurance of the horticultural or agricultural production of Wikipedia:medicinal plant Máthé, A.; I. Máthé. "Quality assurance of cultivated and gathered medicinal plants". http://www.actahort.org/members/showpdf?booknrarnr=765_8. Retrieved 23 May 2009. , Wikipedia:World Health Organization (2003). "WHO guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants". http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241546271.pdf. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- Wikipedia:Best practice
- Wikipedia:Electrical energy efficiency on United States farms
- Wikipedia:Farm assurance
- Wikipedia:List of sustainable agriculture topics
- Wikipedia:Urban agriculture
- "FAO GAP Principles". Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Accessed July 2012
- "Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Audit Programs". USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. Last Modified: July 10, 2012. http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateN&page=GAPGHPAuditVerificationProgram. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Produce GAPs Harmonization Initiative". Unitedfresh.org. http://www.unitedfresh.org/newsviews/gap_harmonization. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Good Agricultural Practices Minimize Food Safety Risks". Almond Board of California. http://www.almondboard.com/Growers/GAPS/Pages/default.aspx. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "New Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Manual is Available". Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, University of Maryland. http://jifsan.umd.edu/news/news_record.php?id=25. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Andrews, Nick (Fall 2008). "Good Agricultural Practices & Marketing Agreements". Vol. III, No. 4. Small Farms, Oregon State University. http://smallfarms.oregonstate.edu/sfn/f08gaps. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Mushroom Good Agricultural Practices Program". Penn State University and the American Mushroom Institute. May 2010. https://c5534f83-a-3193aa87-s-sites.googlegroups.com/a/mgap.org/mgap/home/mgap-files/MGAP_v_15May2010.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cp_dqV5GJ-hXgYRrteJWisSm5xySEO5ePnW4USu0rnH1cPtoBV34VVqsfpNwLFs13nIuCXxo1USVovE1eKbs8I1M_resx_yYUz-whLbXWurvSxN2dKm6_TxY0JjJj5qvnw1JAwqPNX2ViZPfGW-CccbdPlw45CMOc6j_jjzrksC8NPHI5U5-LhdwowNQmgRhDfZhMYbKyiARHr3VcUtq6QypKHmGsliF2-a3hER8St_Jr4Y6hg%3D&attredirects=0. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Good Agricultural Practices Manual". Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, University of Maryland. August 2010. http://jifsan.umd.edu/training/gaps_manual.php. Retrieved July 15, 2012. (Free download)
- Template:Cite book
- USDA GAP/GHP Program
- FDA-CFSAN Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetablesde:Gute landwirtschaftliche Praxis