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Hip Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile di Torino tenda e 2c

Tent and Citroen with hippie decoration, National Automobile Museum of Turin (after 2011 restoration)

"The hippies were heirs to a long line of bohemians that includes William Blake, Walt Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Hesse, Arthur Rimbaud, Oscar Wilde, Aldous Huxley, utopian movements like the Rosicrucians and the Theosophists, and most directly the Beatniks. Hippies emerged from a society that had produced birth-control pills, a counterproductive war in Vietnam, the liberation and idealism of the civil rights movement, feminism, gay rights, FM radio, mass-produced LSD, a strong economy, and a huge number of baby-boom teenagers. These elements allowed the hippies to have a mainstream impact that dwarfed that of the Beats and earlier Wikipedia:avant-garde cultures."[1]

Originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s, the hippie subculture (originally 'hippy') swiftly spread to other countries around the world. The etymology of the term 'hippie' is from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatnik (WP)s who had moved into New York City's Greenwich Village, San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, and similar urban areas. The early hippie ideology included the countercultural values of the Beat Generation (WP). Some created their own social groups and communities, listened to psychedelic rock (WP), opposed the Viet Nam War, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs such as marijuana and Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to explore alternative states of consciousness.

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In January 1967, the Huma Be-In in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco popularized hippie culture, leading to the legendary Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, and the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast. Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda Chicana and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic Housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom, mobile "peace convoys" of New age travellers (WP) made summer pilgrimagess to free music festivals at Stonehenge (WP). In Australia hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass. "Piedra Roja Festival", a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970.

Hippie fashions and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts. Since the widespread movement in the 1960s, many aspects of hippie culture have been assimilated by mainstream society. The religious and cultural diversity espoused by the hippies has gained widespread acceptance, and Eastern philosophy and spiritual concepts have reached a wide audience. The hippie legacy can be observed in contemporary culture in myriad forms — from health food, to music festivals, to contemporary sexual mores, and even to the cyberspace revolution.[2]

Hip Woodstock redmond hair

Hippies at the Woodstock Festival, 1969

EtymologyEdit

Main article: Hippie (etymology)

Lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown.[3] The term hipster was coined by Wikipedia:Harry Gibson in 1940.[4]

The first known time the word was used in print was a caption to a picture depicting Virginia Good and friend in the spring of 1963, in the San Francisco State school paper The Gater.[5]

Although the word hippie made isolated appearances during the early 1960s, the first mainstream, clearly contemporary use of the term appeared in print on September 5, 1965, in the article, "A New Haven for Beatniks", by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon. In that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn coffeehouse, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. ( See Wikipedia:Talk:Hippie#Herb_Caen for discussion - Use of the term "hippie" did not become widespread in the mass media until early 1967, after San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen began to use the term; [6][7] )New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions.

HistoryEdit

Main article: History of the hippie movement

OriginsEdit

The foundation of the hippie movement finds historical precedent as far back as the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics also as early forms of hippie culture.[8] Hippie philosophy also credits the religious and spiritual teachings of Gandhi, Hillel the Elder, Buddha, Mazdak, St. Francis of Assisi, Henry David Thoreau, and Jesus Christ.[8]

The first signs of what we would call modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe. Between 1896 and 1908, a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around German folk music. Known as Der Wandervogel ("migratory bird"), the movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing amateur music and singing, creative dress, and communal outings involving hiking and camping.[9] Inspired by the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Goethe, Herman Hesse, and Eduard Baltzer, Wandervogel attracted thousands of young Germans who rejected the rapid trend toward urbanization and yearned for the pagan, back-to-nature spiritual life of their ancestors.[10] During the first several decades of the twentieth century, Germans settled around the United States, bringing the values of the Wandervogel with them. Some opened the first health food stores, and many moved to Southern California where they could practice an alternative lifestyle in a warm climate. Over time, young Americans adopted the beliefs and practices of the new immigrants. One group, called the "Nature Boys", took to the California desert and raised organic food, espousing a back-to-nature lifestyle like the Wandervogel.[11] Songwriter Eden Ahbez wrote a hit song called Nature Boy inspired by Robert Bootzin (Gypsy Boots), who helped popularize health-consciousness, yoga, and organic food in the United States.

Like Wandervogel, the hippie movement in the United States began as a youth movement. Composed mostly of white teenagers and young adults between the ages of 15 and 25 years old,[12][13] hippies inherited a tradition of cultural dissent from bohemians and beatnik (WP) of the Beat Generation (WP) in the late 1950s.[13] Beats like Allen Ginsberg (WP) crossed-over from the beat movement and became fixtures of the burgeoning hippie and anti-war movements. By 1965, hippies had become an established social group in the U.S., and the movement eventually expanded to other countries,[14][15] extending as far as the United Kingdom and Europe, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico, and Brazil.[16] The hippie ethos influenced The Beatles and others in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe, and they in turn influenced their American counterparts.[17] Hippie culture spread worldwide through a fusion of rock music, folk, blues, and psychedelic rock; it also found expression in literature, the dramatic arts, fashion, and the visual arts, including film, posters advertising rock concerts, and Wikipedia:album covers.[18] Self-described hippies had become a significant minority by 1968, representing just under 0.2% of the U.S. population[19] before declining in the mid-1970s.[14]

Along with the New Left and the American Civil Rights Movement, the hippie movement was one of three dissenting groups of the 1960s counterculture.[15] Hippies rejected established institutions, criticized middle class values, opposed nuclear weapons and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Eastern philosopyy,[20] championed sexual liberation, were often vegetarian and eco-friendly, promoted the use of psychadelic drugs (WP) which they believed expanded one's consciousness, and created intentional communities or communes. They used alternative arts, street theatre, folk music (WP), and psychedelic rock (WP) as a part of their lifestyle and as a way of expressing their feelings, their protests and their vision of the world and life. Hippies opposed political and social orthodoxy, choosing a gentle and nondoctrinaire ideology that favored peace, love and personal freedom,[21][22] expressed for example in The Beatles' song "All You Need is Love".[23] Hippies perceived the dominant culture as a corrupt, monolithic entity that exercised undue power over their lives, calling this culture "The Establishment", "Big Brother", or "The Man".[24][25][26] Noting that they were "seekers of meaning and value", scholars like Timothy Miller have described hippies as a new religious movement.[27]

Early hippies (1960-1966)Edit

"The 60′s were a leap in human consciousness. Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Che Guevara, Mother Teresa, they led a revolution of conscience. The Beatles (WP), The Doors (WP), Jimi Hendrix (WP) created revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dalí, with many colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go there to find themselves." — Carlos Santana (WP)[28]

Hip Furthur 03

Escapin' through the lily fields / I came across an empty space / It trembled and exploded / Left a bus stop in its place / The bus came by and I got on / That's when it all began / There was cowboy Neal / At the wheel / Of a bus to never-ever land
- Wikipedia:Grateful Dead, lyrics from "That's It for the Other One"[29]

During the early 1960s novelist Ken kesey (WP) and The Merry Pranksters (WP) lived communally in California. Members included Beat Generation hero Wikipedia:Neal Cassady, Wikipedia:Ken Babbs, Carolyn Adams (aka Mountain Girl and Carolyn Garcia), Wikipedia:Stewart Brand, Wikipedia:Del Close, Paul Foster, Wikipedia:George Walker, Sandy Lehmann-Haupt and others. Their early escapades were documented in Wikipedia:Tom Wolfe's book Wikipedia:The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. With Cassady at the wheel of a school bus named Further, the Merry Pranksters traveled across the United States to celebrate the publication of Kesey's novel Sometimes a Great Notion and to visit the 1964 Wikipedia:World's Fair in New York City. The Merry Pranksters were known for using marijuana, Wikipedia:amphetamines, and Wikipedia:LSD, and during their journey they "turned on" many people to these drugs. The Merry Pranksters filmed and audiotaped their bus trips, creating an immersive multimedia experience that would later be presented to the public in the form of festivals and concerts. The Wikipedia:Grateful Dead wrote a song about the Merry Pranksters' bus trips called "That's It for the Other One".[29]

During this period Wikipedia:Greenwich Village in New York City and Wikipedia:Berkeley, California anchored the American folk music circuit. Berkeley's two coffee houses, the Cabale Creamery and the Jabberwock (see Jabberwock), sponsored performances by folk music artists in a beat setting.[30] In April 1963, Chandler A. Laughlin III, co-founder of the Cabale Creamery,[31] established a kind of tribal, family identity among approximately fifty people who attended a traditional, all-night Native American Wikipedia:peyote ceremony in a rural setting. This ceremony combined a Wikipedia:psychedelic experience with traditional Native American spiritual values; these people went on to sponsor a unique genre of musical expression and performance at the Red Dog Saloon in the isolated, old-time mining town of Wikipedia:Virginia City, Nevada.[32]

During the summer of 1965, Laughlin recruited much of the original talent that led to a unique amalgam of traditional folk music and the developing psychedelic rock scene.[32] He and his cohorts created what became known as "The Red Dog Experience", featuring previously unknown musical acts — Wikipedia:Grateful Dead, Wikipedia:Jefferson Airplane, Wikipedia:Iron Butterfly, Wikipedia:Big Brother and the Holding Company, Wikipedia:Quicksilver Messenger Service, The Charlatans, and others — who played in the completely refurbished, intimate setting of Virginia City's Red Dog Saloon. There was no clear delineation between "performers" and "audience" in "The Red Dog Experience", during which music, psychedelic experimentation, a unique sense of personal style and Bill Ham's first primitive light shows combined to create a new sense of community.[33] Laughlin and George Hunter of the Charlatans were true "proto-hippies", with their long hair, boots and outrageous clothing of nineteenth-century American (and Native American) heritage.[32] LSD manufacturer Wikipedia:Owsley Stanley lived in Berkeley during 1965 and provided much of the LSD that became a seminal part of the "Red Dog Experience", the early evolution of psychedelic rock and budding hippie culture. At the Red Dog Saloon, The Charlatans were the first psychedelic rock band to play live (albeit unintentionally) loaded on LSD.[34]

When they returned to San Francisco, Red Dog participants Luria Castell, Ellen Harman and Alton Kelley created a collective called "The Family Dog."[32] Modeled on their Red Dog experiences, on October 16, 1965, the Family Dog hosted "A Tribute to Dr. Strange" at Longshoreman's Hall.[35] Attended by approximately 1,000 of the Bay Area's original "hippies", this was San Francisco's first Wikipedia:psychedelic rock performance, costumed dance and light show, featuring Wikipedia:Jefferson Airplane, The Great Society and The Marbles. Two other events followed before year's end, one at California Hall and one at the Matrix.[32] After the first three Family Dog events, a much larger psychedelic event occurred at San Francisco's Longshoreman's Hall. Called "The Trips Festival", it took place on January 21–January 23, 1966, and was organized by Wikipedia:Stewart Brand, Wikipedia:Ken Kesey, Wikipedia:Owsley Stanley and others. Ten thousand people attended this sold-out event, with a thousand more turned away each night.[36] On Saturday January 22, the Wikipedia:Grateful Dead and Wikipedia:Big Brother and the Holding Company came on stage, and 6,000 people arrived to imbibe punch spiked with LSD and to witness one of the first fully developed light shows of the era.[37]

It is nothing new. We have a private revolution going on. A revolution of individuality and diversity that can only be private. Upon becoming a group movement, such a revolution ends up with imitators rather than participants...It is essentially a striving for realization of one's relationship to life and other people...

By February 1966, the Family Dog became Family Dog Productions under organizer Wikipedia:Chet Helms, promoting happenings at the Wikipedia:Avalon Ballroom and the Fillmore Auditorium in initial cooperation with Wikipedia:Bill Graham. The Avalon Ballroom, the Fillmore Auditorium and other venues provided settings where participants could partake of the full psychedelic music experience. Bill Ham, who had pioneered the original Red Dog light shows, perfected his art of liquid light projection, which combined light shows and film projection and became synonymous with the San Francisco ballroom experience.[32][38] The sense of style and costume that began at the Red Dog Saloon flourished when San Francisco's Fox Theater went out of business and hippies bought up its costume stock, reveling in the freedom to dress up for weekly musical performances at their favorite ballrooms. As San Francisco Chronicle music columnist Wikipedia:Ralph J. Gleason put it, "They danced all night long, orgiastic, spontaneous and completely free form."[32]

Some of the earliest San Francisco hippies were former students at San Francisco State College[39] who became intrigued by the developing psychedelic hippie music scene.[32] These students joined the bands they loved, living communally in the large, inexpensive Victorian apartments in the Wikipedia:Haight-Ashbury.[40] Young Americans around the country began moving to San Francisco, and by June 1966, around 15,000 hippies had moved into the Haight.[41] The Charlatans, Wikipedia:Jefferson Airplane, Wikipedia:Big Brother and the Holding Company, and the Wikipedia:Grateful Dead all moved to San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury neighborhood during this period. Activity centered around the Diggers, a guerrilla street Wikipedia:theatre group that combined spontaneous street theatre, anarchistic action, and art happenings in their agenda to create a "free city". By late 1966, the Diggers opened Wikipedia:free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art.[42]

On October 6, 1966, the state of California declared LSD a controlled substance, which made the drug illegal.[43] In response to the criminalization of psychedelics, San Francisco hippies staged a gathering in the Golden Gate Park panhandle, called the Wikipedia:Love Pageant Rally,[43] attracting an estimated 700–800 people.[44] As explained by Allan Cohen, co-founder of the Wikipedia:San Francisco Oracle, the purpose of the rally was twofold: to draw attention to the fact that LSD had just been made illegal — and to demonstrate that people who used LSD were not criminals, nor were they mentally ill. The Grateful Dead played, and some sources claim that LSD was consumed at the rally. According to Cohen, those who took LSD "were not guilty of using illegal substances...We were celebrating transcendental consciousness, the beauty of the universe, the beauty of being."[45]

Summer of Love (1967)Edit

Main article: Summer of Love

File:TieDyeShirtMpegMan.jpg

On January 14, 1967, the outdoor Wikipedia:Human Be-In organized by Michael Bowen[46] helped to popularize hippie culture across the United States, with 20,000 hippies gathering in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. On March 26, Wikipedia:Lou Reed, Wikipedia:Edie Sedgwick and 10,000 hippies came together in Wikipedia:Manhattan for the Wikipedia:Central Park Be-In on Wikipedia:Easter Sunday.[47] The Wikipedia:Monterey Pop Festival from June 16 to June 18 introduced the rock music of the counterculture to a wide audience and marked the start of the "Summer of Love".[48] Wikipedia:Scott McKenzie's rendition of John Phillips' song, "San Francisco", became a hit in the United States and Europe. The lyrics, "If you're going to San Francisco, be sure to wear some flowers in your hair", inspired thousands of young people from all over the world to travel to San Francisco, sometimes wearing flowers in their hair and distributing flowers to passersby, earning them the name, "Flower Children". Bands like the Wikipedia:Grateful Dead, Wikipedia:Big Brother and the Holding Company (with Wikipedia:Janis Joplin), and Wikipedia:Jefferson Airplane lived in the Haight.

In June 1967, Wikipedia:Herb Caen was approached by "a distinguished magazine"[49] to write about why hippies were attracted to San Francisco. He declined the assignment but interviewed hippies in the Haight for his own newspaper column in the Wikipedia:San Francisco Chronicle. Caen determined that, "Except in their music, they couldn't care less about the approval of the straight world."[49] Caen himself felt that the city of San Francisco was so straight that it provided a visible contrast with hippie culture.[49] On July 7, Time magazine featured a cover story entitled, "The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture." The article described the guidelines of the hippie code: "Do your own thing, wherever you have to do it and whenever you want. Drop out. Leave society as you have known it. Leave it utterly. Blow the mind of every straight person you can reach. Turn them on, if not to drugs, then to beauty, love, honesty, fun."[50] It is estimated that around 100,000 people traveled to San Francisco in the summer of 1967. The media was right behind them, casting a spotlight on the Haight-Ashbury district and popularizing the "hippie" label. With this increased attention, hippies found support for their ideals of love and peace but were also criticized for their anti-work, pro-drug, and permissive ethos.

At this point, Wikipedia:The Beatles had released their groundbreaking album Wikipedia:Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band which was quickly embraced by the hippie movement with its colorful psychedelic sonic imagery.

By the end of the summer, the Haight-Ashbury scene had deteriorated. The incessant media coverage led the Diggers to declare the "death" of the hippie with a parade.[51][52][53] According to the late poet Susan 'Stormi' Chambless, the hippies buried an effigy of a hippie in the Panhandle to demonstrate the end of his/her reign. Haight-Ashbury could not accommodate the influx of crowds (mostly naive youngsters) with no place to live. Many took to living on the street, panhandling and drug-dealing. There were problems with malnourishment, disease, and drug addiction. Crime and violence skyrocketed. By the end of 1967, many of the hippies and musicians who initiated the Summer of Love had moved on. Wikipedia:Beatle Wikipedia:George Harrison had once visited Haight-Ashbury and found it to be just a haven for dropouts inspiring him to give up LSD.[1] Misgivings about the hippie culture, particularly with regard to Wikipedia:drug abuse and lenient morality, fueled the Wikipedia:moral panics of the late 1960s.[54]

Revolution (1967–1970)Edit

Hip Hippie girl 1969

Young hippie girl in Los Angeles, 1969

By 1968, hippie-influenced fashions were beginning to take off in the mainstream, especially for youths and younger adults of the populous "Baby Boomer" generation, many of whom may have aspired to emulate the hardcore movements now living in tribalistic communes, but had no overt connections to them. This was noticed not only in terms of clothes and also longer hair for men, but also in music, film, art, and literature, and not just in the US, but around the world. Eugene McCarthy's brief presidential campaign successfully persuaded a significant minority of young adults to "get clean for Gene" by shaving their beards or wearing longer skirts; however the "Clean Genes" had little impact on the popular image in the media spotlight, of the hirsute hippy adorned in beads, feathers, flowers and bells.

The Yippies (WP), who were seen as an offshoot of the hippie movements parodying as a political party, came to national attention during their celebration of the 1968 spring equinox, when some 3,000 of them took over Wikipedia:Grand Central Station in New York — eventually resulting in 61 arrests. The Yippies, especially their leaders Wikipedia:Abbie Hoffman and Wikipedia:Jerry Rubin, became notorious for their theatrics, such as trying to levitate the Pentagon at the October 1967 war protest, and such slogans as "Rise up and abandon the creeping meatball!" Their stated intention to protest the Wikipedia:1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago in August, including nominating their own candidate, "Lyndon Pigasus Pig" (an actual pig), was also widely publicized in the media at this time.[55]

Hip Russian Rainbow Gathering 4 Aug 05

Contemporary hippie at the Rainbow Gathering (WP) in Russia

In April 1969, the building of People's Park (WP) in Berkeley, California received international attention. The University of California, Berkeley had demolished all the buildings on a Template:Convert parcel near campus, intending to use the land to build playing fields and a parking lot. After a long delay, during which the site became a dangerous eyesore, thousands of ordinary Berkeley citizens, merchants, students, and hippies took matters into their own hands, planting trees, shrubs, flowers and grass to convert the land into a park. A major confrontation ensued on May 15, 1969, known as Bloody Thursday, when Governor Ronald Reagan ordered the park destroyed, which led to a two-week occupation of the city of Berkeley by the California National Guard.[56][57] Wikipedia:Flower power came into its own during this occupation as hippies engaged in acts of Wikipedia:civil disobedience to plant flowers in empty lots all over Berkeley under the slogan "Let A Thousand Parks Bloom".

In August 1969, the Woodstock Music and Art Fair took place in Wikipedia:Bethel, New York, which for many, exemplified the best of hippie counterculture. Over 500,000 people arrived[58] to hear some of the most notable musicians and bands of the era, among them Wikipedia:Richie Havens, Wikipedia:Joan Baez, Wikipedia:Janis Joplin, Wikipedia:The Grateful Dead, Wikipedia:Creedence Clearwater Revival, Wikipedia:Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, Wikipedia:Carlos Santana, Wikipedia:The Who, Wikipedia:Jefferson Airplane, and Wikipedia:Jimi Hendrix. Wavy Gravy's Wikipedia:Hog Farm provided security and attended to practical needs, and the hippie ideals of love and human fellowship seemed to have gained real-world expression.

In December 1969, a similar event took place in Wikipedia:Altamont, California, about 30 miles (45 km) east of San Francisco. Initially billed as "Woodstock West", its official name was The Altamont Free Concert. About 300,000 people gathered to hear Wikipedia:The Rolling Stones; Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young; Wikipedia:Jefferson Airplane and other bands. The Wikipedia:Hells Angels provided security that proved far less benevolent than the security provided at the Woodstock event: 18-year-old Wikipedia:Meredith Hunter was stabbed and killed during The Rolling Stones' performance after he brandished a gun and waved it toward the stage.[59]

Aftershocks (1970–present)Edit

File:Wavy gravy.jpg

By the 1970s, the 1960s Wikipedia:zeitgeist that had spawned hippie culture seemed to be on the wane.[60][61] The events at Wikipedia:Altamont Free Concert[62] shocked many Americans,[63] including those who had strongly identified with hippie culture. Another shock came in the form of the Wikipedia:Sharon Tate and Wikipedia:Leno and Rosemary LaBianca murders committed in August 1969 by Wikipedia:Charles Manson and his "family" of followers. Nevertheless, the turbulent political atmosphere that featured the bombing of Wikipedia:Cambodia and shootings by National Guardsmen at Wikipedia:Jackson State University and Wikipedia:Kent State University still brought people together. These shootings inspired the May 1970 song by Wikipedia:Quicksilver Messenger Service "What About Me?", where they sang, "You keep adding to my numbers as you shoot my people down", as well as Wikipedia:Neil Young's "Ohio", recorded by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young.

Much of hippie style had been integrated into Wikipedia:mainstream American society by the early 1970s.[64][65][66] Large rock concerts that originated with the 1967 Wikipedia:Monterey Pop Festival and the 1968 Wikipedia:Isle of Wight Festival became the norm, evolving into Wikipedia:stadium rock in the process. In the mid-1970s, with the end of the draft and the Wikipedia:Vietnam War, a renewal of patriotic sentiment associated with the approach of the Wikipedia:United States Bicentennial and the emergence of punk in London, Manchester, New York and Los Angeles, the mainstream media lost interest in the hippie counterculture. At the same time there was a revival of the Mod subculture, skinheads, teddy boys and the emergence of new youth cultures, like the goths (an arty offshoot of punk) and Wikipedia:football casuals. Acid rock gave way to Wikipedia:prog rock, heavy metal, Wikipedia:disco, and Wikipedia:punk rock.

Starting in the late 1960s, hippies began to come under attack by working-class Wikipedia:skinheads.[67][68][69] Hippies were also vilified and sometimes attacked by punks, revivalist mods, greasers, football casuals, Wikipedia:Teddy boys and members of other youth subcultures of the 1970s and 1980s. The countercultural movement was also under covert assault by Wikipedia:J. Edgar Hoover's infamous "Counter Intelligence Program" (COINTELPRO), but in some countries it was other youth groups that were a threat. Hippie ideals had a marked influence on Wikipedia:anarcho-punk and some Wikipedia:post-punk youth subcultures, especially during the Wikipedia:Second Summer of Love.

While many hippies made a long-term commitment to the lifestyle, most changed; some vowing to change the system from the inside. Critics, Punks in particular, argued that hippies "sold out" during the 1980s and became part of the materialist, consumer culture.[70][71] Although not as visible as it once was, hippie culture has never died out completely: hippies and neo-hippies can still be found on college campuses, on communes, and at gatherings and festivals. Many embrace the hippie values of peace, love, and community, and hippies may still be found in bohemian enclaves around the world.[16]

Towards the end of the 20th century, a trend of "cyber hippies" emerged, that embraced some of the qualities of the '60s psychedelic counterculture.[72]

Main article: Goa trance

Ethos and characteristicsEdit

Hippies sought to free themselves from societal restrictions, choose their own way, and find new meaning in life. One expression of hippie independence from societal norms was found in their standard of dress and grooming, which made hippies instantly recognizable to one another, and served as a visual symbol of their respect for individual rights. Through their appearance, hippies declared their willingness to question authority, and distanced themselves from the "straight" and "square" (i.e., conformist) segments of society.[73]

At the same time, many thoughtful hippies distanced themselves from the very idea that the way a person dresses could be a reliable signal of who he was, especially after outright criminals, like Wikipedia:Charles Manson, began to adopt superficial hippie characteristics, and also after plainclothes policemen started to "dress like hippies" in order to divide and conquer legitimate members of the counter-culture. Frank Zappa admonished his audience that "we all wear a uniform": the San Francisco clown/hippie Wavy Gravy said in 1987 that he could still see fellow-feeling in the eyes of Market Street businessmen who had dressed conventionally to survive.

File:Be Your Own Goddess art bus (1967 VW Kombi) IMG 0136.JPG

As in the beat movement preceding them, and the punk movement that followed soon after, hippie symbols and iconography were purposely borrowed from either "low" or "primitive" cultures, with hippie fashion reflecting a disorderly, often vagrant style.[74] As with other adolescent, white middle-class movements, Wikipedia:deviant behavior of the hippies involved challenging the prevailing Wikipedia:gender differences of their time: both men and women in the hippie movement wore jeans and maintained long hair,[75] and both genders wore sandals or went Wikipedia:barefoot.[41] Men often wore beards,[76] while women wore little or no makeup, with many going braless.[41] Hippies often chose brightly colored clothing and wore unusual styles, such as bell-bottom pants, vests, Wikipedia:tie-dyed garments, Wikipedia:dashikis, Wikipedia:peasant blouses, and long, full skirts; non-Western inspired clothing with Native American, Asian, Indian, African and Latin American motifs were also popular. Much of hippie clothing was self-made in defiance of corporate culture, and hippies often purchased their clothes from flea markets and second-hand shops.[77] Favored accessories for both men and women included Native American jewelry, head scarves, headbands and long beaded necklaces.[41] Hippie homes, vehicles and other possessions were often decorated with Wikipedia:psychedelic art. Template:Clear


Love and Sex Edit

The stereotype on the issues of love and sex said that hippies were "promiscuous, having wild sex orgies, seducing innocent teenagers and every manner of sexual perversion."[78] The hippie movement appeared in the middle of a rising Sexual Revolution in which many views of the status quo on this subject were challenged[79] The hippies inherited a countercultural view and practice on sex and love from the Beat Generation (WP) and "their writings influenced the hippies to open up when it came to sex, and to experiment without guilt or jealousy."[80] A popular hippie slogan appeared that said "If it feels good, do it!"[78] and so "meant you were free to love whomever you pleased, whenever you pleased, however you pleased. This encouraged spontaneous sexual activity and experimentation. Group sex, public sex...homosexuality, all the taboos went out the window. This doesn't mean that straight sex...or monogamy was unknown, quite the contrary. Nevertheless, the open relationship became an accepted part of the hippy lifestyle. This meant that you might have a primary relationship with one person, but if another attracted you, you could explore that relationship without rancor or jealousy."[78]

Hippies embraced the old slogan of free love of radical social reformers of other eras and so "Free love made the whole love, marriage, sex, baby package obsolete. Love was no longer limited to one person, you could love anyone you chose. In fact love was something you shared with everyone, not just your sex partners. Love exists to be shared freely. We also discovered the more you share, the more you get! So why reserve your love for a select few? This profound truth was one of the great hippie revelations."[78] Experimentation of sex alongside psychedelics also occurred due to the perception of them being un-inhibitors[81] while others explored the spiritual aspects of sex.[82]


TravelEdit

Housetrucks and camping at Nambassa 1981

Housetrucks at the Wikipedia:Nambassa 5 day festival 1981

Travel, domestic and international, was a prominent feature of hippie culture, becoming (in this communal process) an extension of friendship. School buses similar to Ken Kesey's Further, or the iconic VW bus, were popular because groups of friends could travel on the cheap. The VW Bus became known as a counterculture and hippie symbol, and many buses were repainted with graphics and/or custom paint jobs — these were predecessors to the modern-day Wikipedia:art car. A peace symbol often replaced the Volkswagen logo. Many hippies favored Wikipedia:hitchhiking as a primary mode of transport because it was economical, Wikipedia:environmentally friendly, and a way to meet new people. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, two organizations in Texas, Student Travel, Inc. under Oliver Herd and European Adventures under Ronny Hames operated extensive VW Bus tours for college students (mostly female) across Europe. Tours ranged from 45–60 days in length and covered destinations from Scandinavia to Spain (running of the bulls in Pamplona), East Germany and the Greek Islands. Under the business model of the time, male students who sold tours to six other students could drive one of the VW busses and travel free. Five - six busses formed the core travel group, and several travel groups would operate at the same time on slightly different itineraries.

File:Gypsy Van Front.jpg

Hippies tended to travel light and could pick up and go wherever the action was at any time; whether at a "love-in" on Wikipedia:Mount Tamalpais near San Francisco, a demonstration against the Vietnam War in Berkeley, one of Wikipedia:Ken Kesey's "Acid Tests", or if the "vibe" wasn't right and a change of scene was desired, hippies were mobile at a moment's notice. Pre-planning was eschewed as hippies were happy to put a few clothes in a backpack, stick out their thumbs and hitchhike anywhere. Hippies seldom worried whether they had money, hotel reservations or any of the other standard accoutrements of travel. Hippie households welcomed overnight guests on an impromptu basis, and the reciprocal nature of the lifestyle permitted freedom of movement. People generally cooperated to meet each other's needs in ways that became less common after the early 1970s."[24] This way of life is still seen among the Wikipedia:Rainbow Family groups, Wikipedia:new age travellers and New Zealand's Wikipedia:housetruckers.[83] A derivative of this free-flow style of travel were hippie trucks and buses, hand-crafted mobile houses built on truck or bus chassis to facilitate a nomadic lifestyle as documented in the 1974 book Roll Your Own[84] Some of these mobile gypsy houses were quite elaborate with beds, toilets, showers and cooking facilities.

On the West Coast, a unique lifestyle developed around the Wikipedia:Renaissance Faires that Phyllis and Ron Patterson first organized in 1963.

Gypsy Van Interior

Hippie Truck interior

During the summer and fall months, entire families traveled together in their trucks and buses, parked at Renaissance Pleasure Faire sites in Southern and Northern California, worked their crafts during the week, and donned Elizabethan costume for weekend performances and to attend booths where handmade goods were sold to the public.

The sheer number of young people living at the time made for unprecedented travel opportunities to special happenings. The peak experience of this type was the Wikipedia:Woodstock Festival near Wikipedia:Bethel, New York, from August 15 to 18, 1969, which drew over 500,000 people.

One travel experience, undertaken by hundreds of thousands of hippies between 1969 and 1971, was the Wikipedia:Hippie trail overland route to India. Carrying little or no luggage, and with small amounts of cash, almost all followed the same route, hitch-hiking across Europe to Athens and on to Istanbul, then by train through central Turkey via Wikipedia:Erzurum, continuing by bus into Iran, via Wikipedia:Tabriz and Tehran to Wikipedia:Mashhad, across the Afghan border into Wikipedia:Herat, through southern Afghanistan via Wikipedia:Kandahar to Kabul, over the Wikipedia:Khyber Pass into Pakistan, via Wikipedia:Rawalpindi and Wikipedia:Lahore to the Indian frontier. Once in India, hippies went to many different destinations but gathered in large numbers on the beaches of Wikipedia:Goa,[85] or crossed the border into Wikipedia:Nepal to spend months in Wikipedia:Kathmandu. In Kathmandu, most of the hippies hung out in tranquil surrounding of a place called Freak Street[86] (Wikipedia:Nepal Bhasa: Jhoo Chhen) which still exists near Kathmandu Durbar Square.

ReligionEdit

Many hippies rejected mainstream organized religions in favor of a more personal spiritual experience, often drawing on indigenous beliefs and folk religions, among others. If they adhered to mainstream faiths, they embraced Wikipedia:Buddhism, Wikipedia:Hinduism and the Wikipedia:Jesus Movement. Many hippies embraced Wikipedia:neo-paganism (especially Wikipedia:Wicca) as well.

Politics Edit

The peace symbol was developed in the UK as a logo for the Wikipedia:Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and was embraced by U.S. anti-war protestors during the 1960s. Hippies were often pacifists and participated in non-violent political demonstrations, such as civil rights marches, the marches on Washington D.C., and anti–Vietnam War demonstrations, including Wikipedia:draft-card burnings and the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests.[87] The degree of political involvement varied widely among hippies, from those who were active in peace demonstrations to the more anti-authority street theater and demonstrations of the Yippies, the most politically active hippie sub-group.[88] Wikipedia:Bobby Seale discussed the differences between Yippies and hippies with Wikipedia:Jerry Rubin who told him that Yippies were the political wing of the hippie movement, as hippies have not "necessarily become political yet". Regarding the political activity of hippies, Rubin said, "They mostly prefer to be stoned, but most of them want peace, and they want an end to this stuff."[89]

In addition to non-violent political demonstrations, hippie opposition to the Vietnam War included organizing political action groups to oppose the war, refusal to serve in the military and conducting "Wikipedia:teach-ins" on college campuses that covered Vietnamese history and the larger political context of the war.[90]

Scott McKenzie's 1967 rendition of John Phillips' song "Wikipedia:San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)", which helped inspire the hippie Summer of Love, became a homecoming song for all Vietnam veterans arriving in San Francisco from 1967 on. McKenzie has dedicated every American performance of "San Francisco" to Vietnam veterans, and he sang at the 2002 20th anniversary of the dedication of the Wikipedia:Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Hippie political expression often took the form of "dropping out" of society to implement the changes they sought. Politically motivated movements aided by hippies include the Wikipedia:back to the land movement of the 1960s, cooperative business enterprises, Wikipedia:alternative energy, the free press movement, and Wikipedia:organic farming.[65][91]

The political ideals of the hippies influenced other movements, such as Wikipedia:anarcho-punk, Wikipedia:rave culture, Wikipedia:green politics, Wikipedia:stoner culture and the Wikipedia:new age movement. Wikipedia:Penny Rimbaud of the English anarcho-punk band Wikipedia:Crass said in interviews, and in an essay called The Last Of The Hippies, that Crass was formed in memory of his friend, Wikipedia:Wally Hope.[92] Rimbaud also said that Crass were heavily involved with the hippie movement throughout the 1960s and Seventies, with Wikipedia:Dial House being established in 1967. Many Wikipedia:punks were often critical of Wikipedia:Crass for their involvement in the hippie movement. Like Crass, Wikipedia:Jello Biafra was influenced by the hippie movement and cited the yippies as a key influence on his political activism and thinking, though he did write songs critical of hippies.

DrugsEdit

see also: Wikipedia:Spiritual use of cannabis, Wikipedia:History of LSD

File:Sharing a joint.jpg

Following in the well-worn footsteps of the Beats, the hippies also used cannabis (marijuana), considering it pleasurable and benign. They enlarged their spiritual pharmacopeia to include hallucinogens such as LSD, Wikipedia:psilocybin, and Wikipedia:mescaline while renouncing the use of alcohol. On the Wikipedia:East Coast of the United States, Wikipedia:Harvard University professors Wikipedia:Timothy Leary, Wikipedia:Ralph Metzner and Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) advocated psychotropic drugs for Wikipedia:psychotherapy, self-exploration, religious and spiritual use. Regarding LSD, Leary said, "Expand your consciousness and find ecstasy and revelation within."[93]

"According to the hippies, LSD was the glue that held the Haight together. It was the hippie sacrament, a mind detergent capable of washing away years of social programming, a re-imprinting device, a consciousness-expander, a tool that would push us up the evolutionary ladder."

On the Wikipedia:West Coast of the United States, Wikipedia:Ken Kesey was an important figure in promoting the recreational use of psychotropic drugs, especially LSD, also known as "acid." By holding what he called "Wikipedia:Acid Tests", and touring the country with his band of Wikipedia:Merry Pranksters, Kesey became a magnet for media attention that drew many young people to the fledgling movement. The Wikipedia:Grateful Dead (originally billed as "The Warlocks") played some of their first shows at the Acid Tests, often as high on LSD as their audiences. Kesey and the Pranksters had a "vision of turning on the world."[93] Harder drugs, such as Wikipedia:amphetamines and heroin were also used in hippie settings; however, these drugs were often disdained, even among those who used them, because they were recognized as harmful and addictive.[73]

LegacyEdit

Hip Psych out

To some hippies, free love was unrestrained by marriage vows. To the promoters of this exploitation movie and, they hoped, its audience, free love did not cost money

Newcomers to the Internet are often startled to discover themselves not so much in some soulless colony of technocrats as in a kind of cultural Brigadoon - a flowering remnant of the '60s, when hippie communalism and libertarian politics formed the roots of the modern cyberrevolution...

The legacy of the hippie movement continues to permeate Western society.[94] In general, unmarried couples of all ages feel free to travel and live together without societal disapproval.[65][95] Frankness regarding sexual matters has become more common, and the rights of homosexual, Wikipedia:bisexual and Wikipedia:transsexual people, as well as people who choose not to categorize themselves at all, have expanded.[96] Religious and cultural diversity has gained greater acceptance.[97] Co-operative business enterprises and creative community living arrangements are more accepted than before.[98] Some of the little hippie Wikipedia:health food stores of the 1960s and 1970s are now large-scale, profitable businesses, due to greater interest in natural foods, herbal remedies, vitamins and other nutritional supplements.[99] Authors Wikipedia:Stewart Brand and Wikipedia:John Markoff argue that the development and popularization of personal computers and the Wikipedia:Internet find one of their primary roots in the anti-authoritarian ethos promoted by hippie culture.[100][101]

Distinct appearance and clothing was one of the immediate legacies of hippies worldwide.[77][102] During the 1960s and 1970s, mustaches, beards and long hair became more commonplace and colorful, while multi-ethnic clothing dominated the fashion world. Since that time, a wide range of personal appearance options and clothing styles, including nudity, have become more widely acceptable, all of which was uncommon before the hippie era.[77][102] Hippies also inspired the decline in popularity of the Wikipedia:necktie and other business clothing, which had been unavoidable for men during the 1950s and early 1960s.

Leo Poster

A hippie in Wikipedia:Stockholm, Sweden in August 1971

Wikipedia:Astrology, including everything from serious study to whimsical amusement regarding personal traits, was integral to hippie culture.[103]

CultureEdit

see also: Wikipedia:List of books and publications related to the hippie subculture, Wikipedia:List of films related to the hippie subculture

The hippie legacy in literature includes the lasting popularity of books reflecting the hippie experience, such as Wikipedia:The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test.[104] In music, the Wikipedia:folk rock and Wikipedia:psychedelic rock popular among hippies evolved into genres such as Wikipedia:acid rock, world beat and Wikipedia:heavy metal music. Wikipedia:Psychedelic trance (also known as psytrance) is a type of Wikipedia:electronic music music influenced by 1960s psychedelic rock. The tradition of hippie music festivals began in the United States in 1965 with Ken Kesey's Wikipedia:Acid Tests, where the Wikipedia:Grateful Dead played tripping on Wikipedia:LSD and initiated psychedelic jamming. For the next several decades, many hippies and neo-hippies became part of the Wikipedia:Deadhead community, attending music and art festivals held around the country. The Wikipedia:Grateful Dead toured continuously, with few interruptions between 1965 and 1995. Wikipedia:Phish and their fans (called Phish Heads) operated in the same manner, with the band touring continuously between 1983 and 2004. Many contemporary bands performing at hippie festivals and their derivatives are called Wikipedia:jam bands, since they play songs that contain long instrumentals similar to the original hippie bands of the 1960s.

With the demise of Grateful Dead and Phish, nomadic touring hippies attend a growing series of summer festivals, the largest of which is called the Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival, which premiered in 2002. The Wikipedia:Oregon Country Fair is a three-day festival featuring hand-made crafts, educational displays and costumed entertainment.

The Wikipedia:Burning Man festival began in 1986 at a San Francisco beach party and is now held in the Wikipedia:Black Rock Desert northeast of Wikipedia:Reno, Nevada. Although few participants would accept the hippie label, Burning Man is a contemporary expression of alternative community in the same spirit as early hippie events. The gathering becomes a temporary city (36,500 occupants in 2005), with elaborate encampments, displays, and many Wikipedia:art cars. Other events that enjoy a large attendance include the Wikipedia:Rainbow Family Gatherings, The Gathering of the Vibes, Community Peace Festivals, and the Wikipedia:Woodstock Festivals.

File:1981 People Pix.jpg

In the UK, there are many Wikipedia:new age travellers who are known as hippies to outsiders, but prefer to call themselves the Wikipedia:Peace Convoy. They started the Wikipedia:Stonehenge Free Festival in 1974, but Wikipedia:English Heritage later banned the festival, resulting in the Wikipedia:Battle of the Beanfield in 1985. With Stonehenge banned as a festival site, new age travellers gather at the annual Wikipedia:Glastonbury Festival.

In Wikipedia:New Zealand between 1976 and 1981 tens of thousands of hippies gathered from around the world on large farms around Wikipedia:Waihi and Wikipedia:Waikino for music and alternatives festivals. Named Wikipedia:Nambassa, the festivals focused on peace, love, and a balanced lifestyle. The events featured practical Wikipedia:workshops and displays advocating Wikipedia:alternative lifestyles, Wikipedia:self sufficiency, clean and Wikipedia:sustainable energy and Wikipedia:sustainable living.[105]

In the UK and Europe, the years 1987 to 1989 were marked by a large-scale revival of many characteristics of the hippie movement. This later movement, composed mostly of people aged 18 to 25, adopted much of the original hippie philosophy of love, peace and freedom. The summer of 1988 became known as the Wikipedia:Second Summer of Love. Although the music favored by this movement was modern Wikipedia:electronic music, especially Wikipedia:house music and Wikipedia:acid house, one could often hear songs from the original hippie era in the chill out rooms at Wikipedia:raves. In the UK, many of the well-known figures of this movement first lived communally in Stroud Green, an area of north London located in Finsbury Park.

Popular films depicting the hippie ethos and lifestyle include Woodstock, Wikipedia:Easy Rider, Hair, The Doors, Across the Universe, Wikipedia:Taking Woodstock, and Crumb.

In 2002, photojournalist John Bassett McCleary published a 650-page, 6,000-entry unabridged Wikipedia:slang dictionary devoted to the language of the hippies titled The Hippie Dictionary: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1960s and 1970s. The book was revised and expanded to 700 pages in 2004.[106] McCleary believes that the hippie counterculture added a significant number of words to the English language by borrowing from the lexicon of the Wikipedia:Beat Generation, through the hippies' shortening of beatnik words and then popularizing their usage.[107]

See alsoEdit

Using the library system for people's names, even assumed ones, so Wavy Gravy is under 'G'.Very short descriptions are welcomed
A band called 'Wavy Gravy' would list under 'W'. If you have trouble remembering last names, apologies; others have trouble remembering first names

Template:Commons category Template:Clear

Citations Edit

  1. "In Defense of Hippies" by Danny Goldberg in Wikipedia:Dissent magazine
  2. http://members.aye.net/~hippie/hippie/special_.htm
  3. Sheidlower, Jesse (2004-12-08), mmm Crying Wolof, Wikipedia:Slate Magazine, http://www.slate.com/id/2110811/ mmm, retrieved 2007-05-07 .
  4. Harry "The Hipster" Gibson (1986), Everybody's Crazy But Me646456456654151, The Hipster Story, Progressive Records, http://www.hyzercreek.com/harryautobio.htm 
  5. Ginny Good, Chapter Fourteen: Pacific Heights. Everyone who's anyone, from the book, Ginny Good: a memoir (a mostly true story), Gerard Jones. Publishers: Monkfish Book, 2004 - 357 pages
  6. see "Take a Hippie to Lunch Today", S.F. Chronicle, 20 Jan 1967, p. 37.
  7. San Francisco Chronicle, 18 Jan 1967 column, p. 27
  8. 8.0 8.1 "The Hippies", Time, 1968-07-07, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,899555-1,00.html, retrieved 2007-08-24 .
  9. Randall, Annie Janeiro (2005), "The Power to Influence Minds", Music, Power, and Politics, Routledge, pp. 66–67, Template:Citation/identifier .
  10. Kennedy, Gordon; Ryan, Kody (2003), Hippie Roots & The Perennial Subculture, http://www.hippy.com/php/article-243.html, retrieved 2007-08-31 . See also: Kennedy 1998.
  11. Elaine Woo, Gypsy Boots, 89; Colorful Promoter of Healthy Food and Lifestyles, Los Angeles Times, August 10, 2004, Accessed December 22, 2008.
  12. Zablocki, Benjamin. "Hippies." World Book Online Reference Center. 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-12. "Hippies were members of a youth movement...from white middle-class families and ranged in age from 15 to 25 years old."
  13. 13.0 13.1 Dudley 2000, pp. 193–194.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Hirsch 1993, p. 419. Hirsch describes hippies as: "Members of a cultural protest that began in the U.S. in the 1960s and affected Europe before fading in the 1970s...fundamentally a cultural rather than a political protest."
  15. 15.0 15.1 Pendergast & Pendergast 2005. Pendergast writes: "The Hippies made up the...nonpolitical subgroup of a larger group known as the counterculture...the counterculture included several distinct groups...One group, called the New Left...Another broad group called...the Civil Rights Movement...did not become a recognizable social group until after 1965...according to John C. McWilliams, author of The 1960s Cultural Revolution."
  16. 16.0 16.1 Stone 1994, Hippy Havens.
  17. August 28 - Bob Dylan turns The Beatles on to cannabis for the second time. See also: Brown, Peter; Gaines, Steven (2002), The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of the Beatles, NAL Trade, Template:Citation/identifier ;Moller, Karen (2006-09-25), Tony Blair: Child Of The Hippie Generation, Swans, http://www.swans.com/library/art12/moller04.html, retrieved 2007-07-29 .
  18. Light My Fire: Rock Posters from the Summer of Love, Wikipedia:Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2006, http://www.mfa.org/exhibitions/sub.asp?key=15&subkey=2147, retrieved 2007-08-25 .
  19. Booth 2004, p. 214.
  20. Oldmeadow 2004, pp. 260, 264.
  21. Stolley 1998, pp. 137.
  22. Yippie (WP) Abbie Hoffman envisioned a different society: "...where people share things, and we don't need money; where you have the machines for the people. A free society, that's really what it amounts to... a free society built on life; but life is not some Time Magazine, hippie version of fagdom... we will attempt to build that society..." See: Swatez, Gerald. Miller, Kaye. (1970). Conventions: The Land Around Us Anagram Pictures. University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. Social Sciences Research Film Unit. qtd at ~16:48. The speaker is not explicitly identified, but it is thought to be Abbie Hoffman.
  23. Wiener, Jon (1991), Come Together: John Lennon in His Time, University of Illinois Press, p. 40, Template:Citation/identifier : "Seven hundred million people heard it in a worldwide TV satellite broadcast. It became the anthem of flower power that summer...The song expressed the highest value of the counterculture...For the hippies, however, it represented a call for liberation from Protestant culture, with its repressive sexual taboos and its insistence on emotional restraint...The song presented the Wikipedia:flower power critique of movement politics: there was nothing you could do that couldn't be done by others; thus you didn't need to do anything...John was arguing not only against bourgeois self-denial and future-mindedness but also against the activists' sense of urgency and their strong personal commitments to fighting injustice and oppression..."
  24. 24.0 24.1 Yablonsky 1968, pp. 106–107.
  25. Theme appears in contemporaneous interviews throughout Yablonsky (1968).
  26. McCleary 2004, pp. 50, 166, 323.
  27. Dudley 2000, pp. 203–206. Timothy Miller notes that the counterculture was a "movement of seekers of meaning and value...the historic quest of any religion." Miller quotes Harvey Cox, William C. Shepard, Wikipedia:Jefferson Poland, and Wikipedia:Ralph J. Gleason in support of the view of the hippie movement as a new religion. See also Wikipedia:Wes Nisker's The Big Bang, The Buddha, and the Baby Boom: "At its core, however, hippie was a spiritual phenomenon, a big, unfocused, revival meeting." Nisker cites the San Francisco Oracle, which described the Human Be-In as a "spiritual revolution".
  28. Carlos Santana: I’m Immortal interview by Punto Digital, October 13, 2010
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  38. Grunenberg & Harris 2005, p. 156.
  39. The college was later renamed San Francisco State University.
  40. Perry 2005, pp. 5–7. Perry writes that SFSC students rented cheap, Edwardian-Victorians in the Haight.
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 Tompkins 2001b
  42. Lytle 2006, pp. 213, 215.
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  48. Dudley 2000, pp. 254.
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  50. Marty 1997, pp. 125.
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  52. October Sixth Nineteen Hundred and Sixty Seven, San Francisco Diggers, 1967-10-06, http://www.diggers.org/free_city_news_sheets.htm, retrieved 2007-08-31 .
  53. Bodroghkozy, Aniko (2001), Groove Tube: Sixties Television and the Youth Rebellion, Duke University Press, pp. 92, Template:Citation/identifier 
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  61. Bugliosi (1994) describes the popular view that the Manson case "sounded the death knell for hippies and all they symbolically represented", citing Wikipedia:Joan Didion, Wikipedia:Diane Sawyer, and Wikipedia:Time. Bugliosi admits that although the Manson murders "may have hastened" the end of the hippie era, the era was already in decline.
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  78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 78.3 Stone 1994, "Sex, Love and Hippies".
  79. "Then in 1966 a book was published called Human Sexual Response by Masters and Johnson. An extremely thorough clinical study, it shed light on just what happens during sex. All of a sudden, sex became the hot topic in America. Another popular book, Everything You've Always Wanted to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid to Ask) answered some common questions about sex (not very well). Then came The Joys of Sex by Alex Comfort, which by its very title reflected America's changing attitude (in 1972) towards sex. At long last, the secret was out, sex can be fun...This rather sudden enlightenment concerning human sexuality didn't just happen due to a few books. America's willingness to discuss sex was a result of the profound Sexual Revolution already well underway. Stone 1994, "Sex, Love and Hippies".
  80. "Again the Beat generation must be credited with living and writing about sexual freedom. Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, William Burroughs and others lived unusually free, sexually expressive lives."Stone 1994, "Sex, Love and Hippies".
  81. "But the biggest release of inhibitions came about through the use of drugs, particularly marijuana and the psychedelics. Marijuana is one of the best aphrodisiacs known to man. It enhances the senses, unlike alcohol, which dulls them. As any hippie can tell you, sex is a great high, but sex on pot is fuckin' far out!...More importantly, the use of psychedelic drugs, especially LSD was directly responsible for liberating hippies from their sexual hang-ups. The LSD trip is an intimate soul wrenching experience that shatters the ego's defenses, leaving the tripper in a very poignant and sensitive state. At this point, a sexual encounter is quite possible if conditions are right. After an LSD trip, one is much more likely to explore one's own sexual nature without inhibitions. Stone 1994, "Sex, Love and Hippies"
  82. "Many hippies on the spiritual path found enlightenment through sex. The Kama Sutra, the Tantric sexual manual from ancient India is a way to cosmic union through sex. Some gurus like Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho) formed cults that focused on liberation through the release of sexual inhibitions"Stone 1994, "Sex, Love and Hippies"
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