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Creation of jobs for unemployed people by government is, like democracy and communism, a good idea that has never been properly implemented, and widely considered to have been proven impractical.

Creation of jobs by capitalists is the direct opposite. Clearly, any economic system at all will create jobs. Yet, despite Capitalism's failure to create 100% employment, job creation is time and again invoked as the reason why capitalism has to exist, as its greatest virtue.

So-called Economic freedom is actually the freedom of capitalists to behave in criminal ways, ways that normal citizens would not be allowed by their governments to behave, due to the negative effects on other citizens. To wit, inasmuch as capitalists are the only avenue of other citizens to the basic life-sustaining resources of food, clothing and shelter, and the life-improving and life-affirming resources of transportation, entertainment and all other goods, capitalists should bear a responsibility to ensure that citizens have access to these things. Inasmuch as workers are a resource in the economy, capitalists have a responsibility, if not an interest, to ensure that it is not wasted. Yet it is taken for granted by capitalists and the governments that serve their needs that the needs of workers are the responsibility of government, if anyone. The latter is most often the case; employment is rarely a concern of capitalist governments, until times of high unemployment.


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Job creation programs are programs or projects undertaken by a government of a nation to assist unemployed members of the population in securing employment. Government work programs may either concentrate on macroeconomic policy in order to increase the supply of jobs, or create more efficient means to pair employment seekers with their prospective employers. A cornerstone of Keynesian economics,

Specific countriesEdit

CanadaEdit

Wikipedia:Canada has many job creation programs at both the federal and provincial levels. At the federal level they are part of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC). There are job creation programs for many groups such as students, fishers, and visible minorities. The government's HRDC agency subsidizes organizations that offer eligible participants opportunities to maintain or enhance job skills. Through these work terms, which can last up to a year, participants gain recent work experience and network with other people. This increases the participants' chances of finding long-term employment.

ChinaEdit

As one of the world's largest recipients of Wikipedia:foreign direct investment, China has arguably benefited from foreign multinational enterprises in various respects. However, one of the main challenges for China is job-creation, and the effect of FDI on job creation is uncertain. The effect depends on the amount of jobs created within foreign firms as well as the effect of FDI on job creation in domestic firms. The positive effect of job creation in foreign firms is associated with their firm characteristics and, in particular, their access to export markets. There also seems to be a positive indirect effect on job creation in domestically owned firms, presumably caused by spillovers.

GermanyEdit

Although Wikipedia:Adolf Hitler in the early 1930s saw the construction of autobahns primarily as a military advantage, construction of the Wikipedia:Autobahn system provided employment for the masses affected by the crisis of the Wikipedia:Weimar Republic.[1] The construction of the Autobahn had a side benefit of creating a new tourist industry.

SwitzerlandEdit

Switzerland, supposedly one of the happiest countries of the world, is recently suffering from an extremely low growth and a rapidly rising Wikipedia:unemployment rate. Swosh (Swiss Work for Shares) stands for a proposed Swiss job creation program to create new jobs by letting fully or partly unemployed people work on so called Wikipedia:swosh projects, compensated - at least in part - not in cash but by shares of specially designed Wikipedia:swosh companies.

While the proposal seems to have enormous Wikipedia:potential to reduce unemployment and produce wealth worldwide, in order to succeed, a number of crucial conditions will have to be met. First of all, successful Wikipedia:pilot projects should be realised as soon as possible.

United StatesEdit

The first large scale job creation programs in the Wikipedia:United States were introduced as part of the Wikipedia:New Deal during the Wikipedia:Great Depression. Departments like the Wikipedia:Civil Works Administration, Wikipedia:Public Works Administration, Wikipedia:Civilian Conservation Corps and most prominently the Wikipedia:Works Progress Administration created thousands of jobs for the unemployed. In 2011 President Wikipedia:Barack Obama, in an opening bid for re-election discussed using Wikipedia:innovation economics as the basis for his jobs creation program. Benefits of Job Creation Programmes: - They have inspired young school leavers to find something to do with their lives. - They have encouraged people in getting part time jobs. - Due to them,there are less cases of unemployment.

Job creation definition Edit

\ Job Creation Theory October 15, 2009 By ,[2] Mark Nejmeh(Upsala 82') and Jack Flattery(Upsala 82',London School of Economics 83', Georgetown 85') [3] , www.jobcreation.us [4]

1. Job Creation by Government spending/stimulus: The Government can stimulate job creation when it invests in projects that improve or create new services. These activities could include releasing contracts to the private sector for infrastructure, defense, engineering, justice, etc. Other ways that the government creates jobs is by issuing special grants for privately run programs. These are often for special studies and research. Grant receivers do employ people. However these grants are often connected to special favors called earmarks. These seemingly good gestures destroy independent innovation that is developed by unconnected science communities and can cause discouragement to innovate by others.

The government also often decides to grow itself and hires new government employees. Some people argue that the bigger government gets; the more overhead private taxpaying industries must pay to support the costs of government. We vote for people to make these decisions for us. It might be a good idea to pay attention to the details in Congress.

This is the easiest Job Creation method because the government seems to have an endless supply of tax payer's money/credit and Congress feels no pain in their own wallets.

2. Job Creation is influenced by legislation and monetary policy: A change to monetary policies, tax incentives and changes in regulations effects employment. The government needs tax revenues and walks a fine line trying to measure the complicated causal effects of their actions. Good intentions can stray an economy as the actors in the theatre of the economy react to a multitude of conditions at once. These rules and regulations are what established businesses love or hate. The more often there are major changes to tax structure and regulation, the more often there are major movements in rates of employment, either job creation or job destruction. Too many changes can hurt an economy and too little can damage an economy. Again, it is a balancing act that is becoming more and more difficult with the existence of special interest lobbyists, non-profit Political Action Committees with noble concerns over social issues and the environment. Government actions do matter

3. Job Creation a market share approach: Job creation can occur when the unemployed become ambitious and start their own business in easy entry industries and markets . This is usually accomplished when an unemployed person turns into an entrepreneur and goes into business to compete in the industry they were familiar with for many years. These new businesses' create jobs simply by innovating and implementing the ideas that were ignored when they were employed. Most small businesses that begin come to the rude awakening that "it's not that easy" but survivors tend to change entire industries that were stuck in operating the "same old way" for years. This also leads to lower prices, stable wages, higher revenues and growth for services in that industry.

The perfect example is the middle manager that is unemployed and becomes a contractor. In the 1980s we had a serious recession and an aging construction industry. Many college educated people became involved in construction and began their business with the notion of implementing technology in that industry. This created the beginning of a thirty year boom in the manufacturing of one of the last products America had to offer . . .Real Estate. The innovations, such as the screw gun, the air-nail gun, new roofing products, vinyl siding, pvc tubing, and light weight scaffolding are a few examples of the innovations that made labor easier to train and kept the price of building stable. The cost of installing a roof, for instance, stayed basically the same for almost 30 years. That is ambition blended with basic low-tech innovation. That is one form of Job Creation.

4. Job Creation through Ideas: Innovate, create, invent, and invest. The most difficult but the most effective way to create long-term employment is to create new industries. It truly is the hardest way but the best way to continually grow an economy that can support its citizens with employment. In the 1990s the computer desk-top industry exploded along with the internet industry. It was a time of high prices for technology, confusion in this new young technology industry and lots of good paying jobs. It is possible to see new industries surface suddenly as we maintain the free markets environment and investment becomes more transparent and accessible to everyone.


Links Edit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Tourist Aspects of the German Autobahn Project 1933 to 1939". University of Kassell. 2006. http://www.ibwl.uni-kassel.de/vahrenkamp/history_mobility/arbeitspapiere/WP4_Tourism_Vahrenkamp3.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  2. Mark Nejmeh
  3. www.jobcreation.us,
  4. Foundation for Job creation

Further readingEdit

  • Schumpeter, J.A., Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (New York: Harper, 1942)

External linksEdit

de:Arbeitsbeschaffungsmaßnahme lt:Aktyvios darbo rinkos politikos priemonės pl:Program ABM

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