This is part of the List of US military operations (WP) for the hippie years, formative years, and legacy years of the period 1960-1980. In all, in the period after WWII until the end of the century, the US invaded ten countries, two of them twice and one of them three times, and arranged or supported 19 coups d'état. There was not one single year in which a CIA or US military operation of detriment to the sovereignty of other nations was not conducted.
It was the revelation of the Pentagon Papers (WP) in 1971 that turned the tide of public opinion and made it possible for many of these secret operations to be discovered, much as the WikiLeaks revelations did years later.
|1948-present||Europe, in particular NATO countries||Operation Gladio (Wikipedia:Operation Gladio) US sleeper cells in NATO countries and throughout Europe, still continuing|
|1960||Democratic Republic of the Congo||CIA coup|
|1961||Angola||A small proportion of the 2 million lives lost in the entire 40yr. conflict 1961-2002||John F. Kennedy agrees with anti-communist MPLA splinter faction leaders to back the formation of the NFLA. Nuclear missiles deployed in Turkey|
|1962||Cuba||United States embargo against Cuba, Cuban missile crisis, the year after US missiles had been placed in Turkey, and three years after the Bay of Pigs|
|1963||Dominican Republic||Operation Powerpack ""We don't propose to sit here in a rocking chair with our hands folded and let the Communist set up any government in the western hemisphere" - Lyndon Johnson|
|1965||Viet Nam|| First overt US combat troops in Viet Nam; like the 'military advisors' before them,|
their presence was a breach of the 1954 Geneva Agreements
|1966||Republic of Ghana||CIA coup|
|1966||Indonesia||500,000||anti-Communist purges Wikipedia:Indonesian killings of 1965–1966|
|1970||Vietnam||10000||Chemical weapons, Operation Ranch Hand|
|1971||Laos||Backed by American air and artillery support, South Vietnamese troops invade Laos|
|1972||Viet Nam||Although by no means the first heavy bombing campaign, even in 1972, the Christmas bombing of N. Viet Nam drew criticism in part because the public for once did not fail to notice its disparity with the widespread reporting that the US was getting out of the war|
|1973-1975||Iraq||Kurdish rebels||The CIA colludes with Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to finance and arm Kurdish rebels in an attempt to overthrow Iraq's Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr.|
|1975||East Timor||100,000||Wikipedia:Indonesian occupation of East Timor (see ETAN)|
|1975||Southern South America||60,000, possibly more||Operation Condor (Wikipedia:Operation Condor)|
|1980-||Angola||A small proportion of the 2 million lives lost in the entire 40yr. conflict 1961-2002||The Reagan adminstration arms the anti-communist NFLA with Stinger missiles, removing the same air superiority that the US had enjoyed in Viet Nam. In the end, the US and allies in the region (at the time, forces backed by apartheid South Africa) have sole strategic control over Angola's oil and Namibia's uranium resources that continues to this day|
|1980-1988||Cambodia||1.2 million||Ronald Reagan authorizes support for vestiges of the Khmer Rouge to destabilize Cambodia's government and oust the Viet Namese occupation forces supporting them. The US would return to finish the next half of the plan in 1991|
See also Edit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 U.S. policy in postcolonial Africa: four case studies in conflict resolution by Festus Ugboaja Ohaegbulam
- ↑ Robert Cribb, ed. The Indonesian Killings of 1965-1966: Studies from Java and Bali (Clayton, Vic: Monash papers on Southeast Asia, no. 21, 1990), p.12
- ↑ Flagrancy to Reason
- ↑ Statistics of Democide, Chapter 6, Statistics Of Vietnamese Democide: Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, By R.J. Rummel
- ↑ Hitchens, Christopher, "The Ugly Truth About Gerald Ford", Slate
- ↑ Safire, William (2003-03-03). "The Kurdish Ghost". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/03/opinion/the-kurdish-ghost.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss?pagewanted=1.
- ↑ The Wikipedia:Southern Cone of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil
- ↑ Victor Flores Olea. "Editoriales - El Universal - 10 de abril 2006 : Operacion Condor" (in Spanish). El Universal (Mexico). http://www.el-universal.com.mx/editoriales/34023.html. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
- ↑ "Centro de Documentación y Archivo para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos". http://www.pj.gov.py/cdya/index.html. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
- ↑ J. Patrice McSherry (2002). "Tracking the Origins of a State Terror Network: Operation Condor". 36–60.
- ↑ "2006: el ocaso de los “cóndores mayores”". La Nación. 2007-12-13. http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias/site/artic/20061212/pags/20061212213006.html. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
- ↑ R. J. Rummel, Hawaii.edu
- ↑ Cambodia at a Crossroads by Michael Johns, The World and I magazine, February 1988
- ↑ Wikipedia:1986 Bombing of Libya