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List of US military operations
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See also Wikipedia:Timeline of United States at war, Wikipedia:List of wars involving the United States

This is a timeline of United States government military operations. In part because it is very much more broadly construed, and in part because of Wikipedia's systemic bias, it is considerably more comprehensive than the corresponding article on Wikipedia. For example, Wikipedia itself notes that in the original article, "instances where the U.S. government gave aid alone, with no military personnel involvement, are excluded, as are Wikipedia:Central Intelligence Agency operations."

The list through 1775 is based on Committee on International Relations (now known as the House Committee on Foreign Affairs). Dates show the years in which U.S. government military units participated. Items in bold are the U.S. government wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public.

Extraterritorial and major domestic deploymentsEdit

Portions of this list are from the Congressional Research Service report RL30172.[1]


1775–83Wikipedia:American Revolutionary War: an armed struggle for secession from the Wikipedia:British Empire by the Wikipedia:Thirteen Colonies that would subsequently become the United States.

1776–77Wikipedia:Second Cherokee War: a series of armed conflicts when the Cherokee fought to prevent the encroachment of American settlers into Wikipedia:eastern Tennessee and Wikipedia:eastern Kentucky; under British rule, this land had been preserved as native territory.

1776–94Wikipedia:Cherokee–American wars: a continuation of the Second Cherokee War that included a larger number of native tribes attempt to halt the expansion of settlers into Wikipedia:Kentucky and Wikipedia:Tennessee

1785–95Wikipedia:Northwest Indian War: a series of battles with various native tribes in present-day Wikipedia:Ohio. The goal of the campaign was to affirm American sovereignty over the region and to create increased opportunities for settlement.

1786–87Wikipedia:Shays' Rebellion: a Wikipedia:Western Massachusetts debtor's revolt over a credit squeeze that had financially devastated many farmers. The federal government was fiscally unable to raise an army to assist the state militia in combating the uprising; the weakness of the national government bolstered the arguments in favor of replacing the Wikipedia:Articles of Confederation with an updated governmental framework.

1791–94Wikipedia:Whiskey Rebellion: a series of protests against the institution of a federal tax on the distillation of spirits as a revenue source for repaying the nation's war bonds. The revolt was centered upon Wikipedia:southwestern Pennsylvania, although violence occurred throughout the Wikipedia:Trans-Appalachian region.

1798–1800Wikipedia:Quasi-War: an undeclared naval war with France over American default on its war debt. An additional mitigating factor was the continuation of American trade with Britain, with whom their former French allies were at war. This contest included land actions, such as that in the Wikipedia:Dominican Republic city of Puerto Plata, where U.S. Marines captured a French vessel under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes.[1]

1799–1800Wikipedia:Fries' Rebellion: a string of protests against the enactment of new real estate taxes to pay for the Quasi-War. Hostilities were concentrated in the communities of the Wikipedia:Pennsylvania Dutch.


1801–05Wikipedia:First Barbary War: a series of naval battles in the Mediterranean against the Wikipedia:Kingdom of Tripoli, a quasi-independent state of the Wikipedia:Ottoman Empire. Action was in response to the capture of numerous American ships by the infamous Wikipedia:Barbary pirates. The federal government rejected the Tripolitan request for an annual tribute to guarantee safe passage, and an American naval blockade ensued. After the seizure of the USS Philadelphia, American forces under William Eaton invaded coastal cities. A peace treaty resulted in the payment of a ransom for the return of captured American soldiers and only temporarily eased hostilities.[1]

1806 – Action in Spanish Mexico: The platoon under Captain Zebulon Pike invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Wikipedia:Rio Grande on orders from General Wikipedia:James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present-day Wikipedia:Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later released after seizure of his papers.Template:Ref label

1806–10 – Action in the Wikipedia:Gulf of Mexico: American Wikipedia:gunboats operated from Wikipedia:New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Wikipedia:Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Captain John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.[1]


1810Wikipedia:West Florida (Spanish territory): Wikipedia:Governor Wikipedia:William C. C. Claiborne of Wikipedia:Louisiana, on orders of President Wikipedia:James Madison, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Wikipedia:Perdido River.Template:Ref label

1812Wikipedia:Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain: Temporary possession was authorized by President Wikipedia:James Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was obtained by General George Mathews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.Template:Ref label

1812–15Wikipedia:War of 1812: On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war against the United Kingdom. Among the issues leading to the war were British Wikipedia:impressment of American sailors into the Wikipedia:Royal Navy, interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France. Template:Ref label

1813 – West Florida (Spanish territory): On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Wikipedia:Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. Thus U.S. troops advanced into disputed territory to the Wikipedia:Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.Template:Ref label

1813–14Wikipedia:Marquesas Islands (Wikipedia:French Polynesia): U.S. forces built a fort on the island of Wikipedia:Nuku Hiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British.Template:Ref label

1814 – Spanish Florida: General Wikipedia:Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British forces.Template:Ref label

1814–25 – Caribbean: Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Wikipedia:Cuba, Wikipedia:Puerto Rico, Wikipedia:Santo Domingo, and Yucatán. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822, Commodore Wikipedia:James Biddle employed a squadron of two Wikipedia:frigates, four Wikipedia:sloops of war, two Wikipedia:brigs, four Wikipedia:schooners, and two gunboats in the Wikipedia:West Indies.Template:Ref label

1815Wikipedia:Algiers: The Wikipedia:Second Barbary War was declared against the United States by the Wikipedia:Dey of Algiers of the Wikipedia:Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military expedition by statute. A large fleet under Captain Wikipedia:Stephen Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.Template:Ref label

1815 – Tripoli: After securing an agreement from Algiers, Captain Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Wikipedia:Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.Template:Ref label

1816 – Spanish Florida: United States forces destroyed Wikipedia:Negro Fort, which harbored Wikipedia:fugitive slaves making raids into United States territory.Template:Ref label

1816–18 – Spanish Florida – First Wikipedia:Seminole War: The Wikipedia:Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under General Jackson and General Wikipedia:Edmund P. Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. In 1819 the Floridas were ceded to the United States.Template:Ref label

1817Wikipedia:Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida): Under orders of President Wikipedia:James Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters. This episode in Florida's history became known as the Wikipedia:Amelia Island Affair.Template:Ref label

1818Wikipedia:Oregon: The Template:USS dispatched from Washington, which made a landing at the mouth of the Wikipedia:Columbia River to assert US claims. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.Template:Ref label Subsequently, American and British claims to the Wikipedia:Oregon Country were resolved with the Wikipedia:Oregon Treaty of 1846.Template:Ref label


1820–23 – Africa: Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 Wikipedia:act of Congress. Template:Ref labelTemplate:Ref label

1822 – Cuba: United States naval forces suppressing piracy landed on the northwest coast of Cuba and burned a pirate station.Template:Ref label

1823 – Cuba: Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.Template:Ref label

1824 – Cuba: In October the Template:USS landed sailors near Wikipedia:Matanzas in pursuit of pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822.Template:Ref label

1824Wikipedia:Puerto Rico (Spanish territory): Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.Template:Ref label

1825 – Cuba: In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Wikipedia:Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.Template:Ref label

1827 – Greece:[2] In October and November, landing parties hunted pirates on the Mediterranean islands of Argentiere (Kimolos), Wikipedia:Myconos, and Wikipedia:Andros.Template:Ref label


1831–32Wikipedia:Falkland Islands: Captain Wikipedia:Silas Duncan of the Template:USS attacked, looted and burned the Argentine town of Puerto Soledad in Malvinas islands. This was in response to the capture of three American sailing vessels which were detained after ignoring orders to stop depredation of local fishing resources without permission from the Argentine government. Subsequently the islands were invaded by the UK in 1833 remaining to this day.Template:Ref label

1832Attack on Quallah Battoo: Wikipedia:Sumatra, Wikipedia:Indonesia – February 6 to 9, U.S. forces under Commodore John Downes aboard the Wikipedia:frigate Template:USS landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American Wikipedia:cargo ship Friendship.Template:Ref label

1833 – Argentina: October 31 to November 15, A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and other countries during an insurrection.Template:Ref label

1835–36 – Peru: December 10, 1835 to January 24, 1836 and August 31 to December 7, 1836, Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.Template:Ref label

1835–42 – Florida Territory: United States Navy supports the Army's efforts at quelling uprisings and attacks on civilians by Seminole Indians. Government's efforts to relocate the Seminoles to west of the Mississippi are hindered by 7 years of war.

1838 – The Caroline affair on Wikipedia:Navy Island, Canada: After the failure of the Wikipedia:Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 favoring Canadian democracy and independence from the Wikipedia:British Empire; Wikipedia:William Lyon Mackenzie and his rebels fled to Navy Island where they declared the Wikipedia:Republic of Canada. American sympathizers sent supplies on the SS Caroline, which was intercepted by the British and set ablaze, after killing one American. It was falsely reported that dozens of Americans were killed as they were trapped on board, and American forces retaliated by burning a British steamer while it was in U.S. waters.

1838–39Wikipedia:Sumatra (Indonesia): December 24, 1838 to January 4, 1839, A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on American shipping.Template:Ref label


1840 – Fiji Islands: In July, naval forces landed to punish natives for attacking American exploring and surveying parties.Template:Ref label

1841Wikipedia:McKean Island (Drummond Island/Taputenea), Wikipedia:Gilbert Islands (Kingsmill Group), Pacific Ocean: A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives.Template:Ref label

1841Wikipedia:Samoa: On February 24, a naval party landed and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Wikipedia:Upolu.Template:Ref label

1842 – Mexico: Commodore Wikipedia:Thomas ap Catesby Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Wikipedia:Monterey, California, on October 19, believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at San Diego.Template:Ref label

1843 – China: Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.Template:Ref label

1843 – Africa: From November 29 to December 16, four United States vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Wikipedia:Ivory Coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping.Template:Ref label

1844 – Mexico: President Tyler deployed U.S. forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation (which was later rejected). He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry.Template:Ref label

1846–48Wikipedia:Mexican–American War: On May 13, 1846, the United States recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the United States and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk said that it was necessary to deploy forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.

The war ended with the Wikipedia:Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848. The treaty gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, established the U.S.–Mexican border of the Rio Grande, and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming. In return, Mexico received Template:US$[3] — less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities.Template:Ref label

1849Wikipedia:Smyrna (İzmir, Turkey): In July, a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.Template:Ref label


1851 – Ottoman Empire: After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Wikipedia:Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levantine) coast.Template:Ref label

1851 – Johanna Island (modern Wikipedia:Anjouan, east of Africa): In August, forces from the U.S. Wikipedia:sloop-of-war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.Template:Ref label

1852–53 – Argentina: February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853: Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution.Template:Ref label

1853 – Nicaragua: March 11 to 13, US forces landed to protect American lives and interests during political disturbances.Template:Ref label

1853–54 – Japan: Commodore Matthew Perry and his expedition made a display of force leading to the "Wikipedia:opening of Japan".Template:Ref label

1853–54Wikipedia:Ryūkyū and Wikipedia:Bonin Islands (Japan): Commodore Matthew Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Wikipedia:Naha on Wikipedia:Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.Template:Ref label

1854 – China: April 4 to June 17, American and English ships landed forces to protect American interests in and near Wikipedia:Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.Template:Ref label

1854 – Nicaragua: On July 9–15, naval forces bombarded and burned Wikipedia:San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.Template:Ref label

1855 – China: On May 19–21, U.S. forces protected American interests in Wikipedia:Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Wikipedia:Hong Kong.Template:Ref label

1855 – Fiji Islands: From September 12 to November 4, an American naval force landed to seek reparations for attacks on American residents and seamen.Template:Ref label

1855 – Uruguay: On November 25–29, United States and European naval forces landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Wikipedia:Montevideo.Template:Ref label

1856 – Panama, Republic of New Grenada: On September 19–22, U.S. forces landed to protect American interests during an insurrection.Template:Ref label

1856 – China: From October 22 to December 6, U.S. forces landed to protect American interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.Template:Ref label

1857–58Wikipedia:Utah War: The Utah War was a dispute between Wikipedia:Mormon settlers in Wikipedia:Utah Territory and the United States federal government. The Mormons and Washington each sought control over the government of the territory, with the national government victorious. The confrontation between the Mormon militia and the U.S. Army involved some destruction of property, but no actual battles between the contending military forces.

1857 – Nicaragua: April to May, November to December. In May, Commander Wikipedia:Charles Henry Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, self-proclaimed Wikipedia:president of Nicaragua, who was losing control of the country to forces financed by his former business partner, Wikipedia:Cornelius Vanderbilt, and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year United States vessels Template:USS, Template:USS, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Wikipedia:Hiram Paulding's act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Wikipedia:Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.Template:Ref label

1858 – Uruguay: From January 2 to 27, forces from two United States warships landed to protect American property during a revolution in Wikipedia:Montevideo.Template:Ref label

1858Fiji Islands: From October 6 to 16, a marine expedition with the Template:USS killed 14 natives and burned 115 huts in retaliation for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.Template:Ref label Template:Ref label Template:Ref label

1858–59 – Ottoman Empire: The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Wikipedia:Levant after a massacre of Americans at Wikipedia:Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities (of the Ottoman Empire) of the power of the United States."Template:Ref label

1859 – Paraguay: Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Wikipedia:Paraná River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large display of force.Template:Ref label

1859 – Mexico: Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican nationalist Wikipedia:Juan Cortina.Template:Ref label Template:Ref label

1859 – China: From July 31 to August 2, a naval force landed to protect American interests in Shanghai.Template:Ref label


1860Wikipedia:Angola, Portuguese West Africa: On March 1, American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.Template:Ref label

1860 – Colombia, Bay of Panama: From September 27 to October 8, naval forces landed to protect American interests during a revolution.Template:Ref label

1861–65Wikipedia:American Civil War: A major war between the United States (the Union) and eleven Southern states which declared that they had a right to Wikipedia:secession and formed the Wikipedia:Confederate States of America.

1863 – Japan: July 16, Wikipedia:Naval battle of Shimonoseki: The Template:USS retaliated against a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.Template:Ref label

1864 – Japan: From July 14 to August 3, naval forces protected the United States Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with American power.Template:Ref label

1864 – Japan: From September 4 to 14, naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.Template:Ref label

1865 – Panama: On March 9 and 10, US forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.Template:Ref label

1865–77Wikipedia:Southern United StatesReconstruction following the American Civil War: The South is divided into five Union occupation districts under the Wikipedia:Reconstruction Act.

1866 – Mexico: To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in November obtained surrender of Matamoros, on the border state of Wikipedia:Tamaulipas. After three days he was ordered by US Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.Template:Ref label

1866 – China: From June 20 to July 7, US forces punished an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.Template:Ref label

1867 – Nicaragua: Marines occupied Managua and Leon.

1867 – Formosa (island of Taiwan): On June 13, a naval force landed and burned a number of huts to punish the murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.

1868 – Japan (Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata): February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13. US forces were landed to protect American interests during a civil war (Wikipedia:Boshin War) in Japan.Template:Ref label

1868 – Uruguay: On February 7–8, and 19–26, US forces protected foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.Template:Ref label

1868 – Colombia: In April, US forces protected passengers and treasure in transit at Aspinwall during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia.Template:Ref label


1870Wikipedia:Battle of Boca Teacapan: On June 17 and 18, US forces destroyed the pirate ship Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Wikipedia:Teacapan Estuary in Mexico.Template:Ref label

1870 – Kingdom of Hawaii: On September 21, US forces placed the American flag at half-mast upon the death of Queen Wikipedia:Kalama, when the American consul at Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing.Template:Ref label

1872 – Korea: Wikipedia:Shinmiyangyo – June 10 to 12, A US naval force attacked and captured five forts to force stalled negotiations on trade agreements and to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for executing the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner (which in turn happened because the crew had stolen food and kidnapped a Korean official), and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River. Template:Ref label

1873 – Colombia (Bay of Panama): May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. U.S. forces protected American interests during hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of Panama.Template:Ref label

1873–96 – Mexico: United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands.Template:Ref label

1874Wikipedia:Honolulu Courthouse Riot: From February 12 to 20, detachments from American vessels were landed to protect the interests of Americans living in the Kingdom of Hawaii during the coronation of a new king.Template:Ref label

1876 – Mexico: On May 18, an American force was landed to police the town of Matamoros, Wikipedia:Mexico, temporarily while it was without other government.Template:Ref label

1878 – Lincoln County, New Mexico: On July 15–19, during the Wikipedia:Battle of Lincoln (1878) (part of the Wikipedia:Lincoln County War) 150 Wikipedia:cavalry-men arrived from Fort Stanton, under the command of Lieutenant George Smith (later Colonel Wikipedia:Nathan Dudley) to assist the Murphy-Dolan Faction in attacking the Wikipedia:Lincoln County Regulators vigilante group. 5 dead, 8–28 wounded.Template:Citation needed


1882Egyptian Expedition: July 14 to 18, American forces landed to protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.Template:Ref label

1885 – Panama (Colón): January 18 and 19, US forces were used to guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colón and Panama, the forces helped reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity (see Wikipedia:Burning of Colón).Template:Ref label

1888 – Korea: June, A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.Template:Ref label

1888 – Haiti: December 20, A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.Template:Ref label

1888–89Wikipedia:Samoan crisis; Wikipedia:First Samoan Civil War; Wikipedia:Second Samoan Civil War: November 14, 1888 to March 20, 1889, US forces were landed to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.Template:Ref label

1889 – Kingdom of Hawaii: July 30 and 31, US forces at Honolulu protected the interests of Americans living in Hawaii during an American led revolution.Template:Ref label


1890 – Argentina: A naval party landed to protect US consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.Template:Ref label

1890 – South Dakota: December 29, Soldiers of the US Army 7th Cavalry killed 178 Sioux Amerindians following an incident over a disarmament-inspection at a Lakota Sioux encampment near Wounded Knee Creek. 89 other Amerinds were injured, 150 were reported missing; Army casualties were 25 killed, 39 wounded.Template:Citation needed

1891Wikipedia:Haiti: US forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.Template:Ref label

1891Wikipedia:Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations: July 2 to October 5, Naval forces sought to stop seal poaching.Template:Ref label

1891Wikipedia:Itata Incident: US and European naval forces intercepted and detained a shipment of arms sent to the Congressionalist forces in the Chilean Civil War.

1891Wikipedia:Chile: August 28 to 30, US forces protected the American consulate and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaíso.Template:Ref label

1892Wikipedia:Homestead Strike: On July 6, Striking miners attack Wikipedia:Pinkerton National Detective Agency agents attempting to break the strike by bringing non-union workers to the mine. 6,000 Pennsylvania state militiamen sent to reinstate law and order. 16 dead, 27–47 wounded

1892Wikipedia:Wyoming: April 11 to April 13, U.S. Cavalry sent to breakup a gun battle at the Wikipedia:TA Ranch. Wikipedia:Johnson County War

1893Wikipedia:Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom: January 16 to April 1, Marines landed in Wikipedia:Hawaii, ostensibly to protect American lives and property, but many believed actually to promote a provisional government under Wikipedia:Sanford B. Dole. This action was disavowed by President Cleveland, and the United States apologized in 1993.Template:Ref label

1894 – Nicaragua: July 6 to August 7, US forces sought to protect American interests at Wikipedia:Bluefields following a revolution.Template:Ref label

1894–95 – China: Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes during the Wikipedia:First Sino-Japanese War.Template:Ref label

1894–95 – China: A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals.Template:Ref label

1894–96 – Korea: July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896, A guard of marines was sent to protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the Sino-Japanese War.Template:Ref label

1895 – Colombia: March 8 and 9, US forces protected American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.Template:Ref label

1896 – Nicaragua: May 2 to 4, US forces protected American interests in Corinto during political unrest.Template:Ref label

1898 – Nicaragua: February 7 and 8, US forces protected American lives and property at San Juan del Sur.Template:Ref label

1898Wikipedia:Spanish–American War: On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war with Spain, ostensibly aligned with Cuban rebels. The war followed a Cuban insurrection, the Wikipedia:Cuban War of Independence against Spanish rule and the sinking of the Template:USS in the harbor at Havana.Template:Ref label

1898–99 – Samoa: Wikipedia:Second Samoan Civil War, a conflict that reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States were locked in dispute over who should have control over the Samoan island chain.

1898–99 – China: November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899, US forces provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.Template:Ref label

1899 – Nicaragua: American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.Template:Ref label

1899–1913Wikipedia:Philippine Islands: Wikipedia:Philippine–American War, US forces protected American interests following the war with Spain, defeating Filipino revolutionaries seeking immediate national independence.Template:Ref label The U.S. government declared the "insurgency" officially over in 1902, when the Filipino leadership generally accepted American rule. Skirmishes between government troops and armed groups lasted until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions of the war.[4]


1900 – China: From May 24 to September 28, Wikipedia:Boxer Rebellion. American troops participated in operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer uprising, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened.Template:Ref label

1901 – Colombia (State of Panama): From November 20 to December 4. (See: Wikipedia:Separation of Panama from Colombia) US forces protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.Template:Ref label

1902 – Colombia: From April 16 to 23, US forces protected American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.Template:Ref label

1902 – Colombia (State of Wikipedia:Panama): From September 17 to November 18, the United States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.Template:Ref label

1903Wikipedia:Honduras: From March 23 to 30 or 31, US forces protected the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Wikipedia:Puerto Cortes during a period of revolutionary activity.Template:Ref label

1903 – Dominican Republic: From March 30 to April 21, a detachment of marines was landed to protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolutionary outbreak.Template:Ref label

1903Wikipedia:Syria: From September 7 to 12, US forces protected the American consulate in Beirut when a local Muslim uprising was feared.Template:Ref label

1903–04 – Abyssinia (Wikipedia:Ethiopia): Twenty-five Marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the US Consul General while he negotiated a treaty.Template:Ref label

1903–14 – Panama: US forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903 to January 21, 1914 to guard American interests.Template:Ref label

1904 – Dominican Republic: From January 2 to February 11, American and British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.Template:Ref label

1904 – Tangier, Morocco: "We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead." A squadron demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marines were landed to protect the consul general.Template:Ref label

1904 – Panama: From November 17 to 24, U.S forces protected American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.Template:Ref label

1904–05 – Korea: From January 5, 1904 to November 11, 1905, a guard of Marines was sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the Wikipedia:Russo-Japanese War.Template:Ref label

1906–09 – Cuba: From September 1906 to January 23, 1909, US forces sought to protect interests and re-establish a government after revolutionary activity.Template:Ref label

1907 – Honduras: From March 18 to June 8, to protect American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua, troops were stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Pedro Sula, Laguna and Choloma.Template:Ref label


1910 – Nicaragua: From May 19 to September 4, Wikipedia:Occupation of Nicaragua. U.S. forces protected American interests at Bluefields.Template:Ref label

1911 – Honduras: On January 26, American naval detachments were landed to protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.Template:Ref label

1911 – China: As the Wikipedia:Tongmenghui-led Wikipedia:Xinhai Revolution approached, in October an ensign and 10 men tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away, and a small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow. Marines were deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; Wikipedia:landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.Template:Ref label

1912 – Honduras: A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortes. The forces were withdrawn after the United States disapproved the action.Template:Ref label

1912 – Panama: Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Wikipedia:Panama Canal Zone.Template:Ref label

1912Wikipedia:Cuba: From June 5 to August 5, U.S. forces protected American interests in Wikipedia:Oriente Province and in Wikipedia:Havana.Template:Ref label

1912 – China: August 24–26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26–30 at Camp Nicholson. U.S. forces protected Americans and American interests during the Wikipedia:Xinhai Revolution.Template:Ref label

1912 – Turkey: From November 18 to December 3, U.S. forces guarded the American legation at Constantinople during the Wikipedia:First Balkan WarTemplate:Ref label

1912–25 – Nicaragua: From August to November 1912, U.S. forces protected American interests during an attempted revolution. A small force, serving as a legation guard and seeking to promote peace and stability, remained until August 5, 1925.Template:Ref label

1912–41 – China: The disorders which began with the overthrow of the dynasty during Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of U.S. interests in China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. In 1933 the United States had 3,027 armed men ashore. The protective action was generally based on treaties with China concluded from 1858 to 1901.Template:Ref label

1913 – Mexico: From September 5 to 7, a few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.Template:Ref label

1914 – Haiti: January 29 to February 9, February 20 and 21, October 19. Intermittently, U.S. naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting and revolution.Template:Ref label The specific order from the Secretary of the Navy to the invasion commander, Admiral William Deville Bundy, was to "protect American and foreign" interests.Template:Citation needed

1914 – Dominican Republic: In June and July, during a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.Template:Ref label

1914–17 – Mexico: Wikipedia:Tampico Affair led to Occupation of Veracruz, Mexico. Undeclared Mexican–American hostilities followed the Tampico Affair and Villa's raids . Also Wikipedia:Pancho Villa Expedition) – an abortive military operation conducted by the United States Army against the military forces of Francisco "Pancho" Villa from 1916 to 1917 and included capture of Veracruz. On March 19, 1915 on orders from President Woodrow Wilson, and with tacit consent by Wikipedia:Venustiano Carranza General Wikipedia:John J. Pershing led an invasion force of 10,000 men into Mexico to capture Villa.Template:Ref label

1915–34 – Haiti: From July 28, 1915 to August 15, 1934, Wikipedia:United States occupation of Haiti. US forces maintained order during a period of chronic political instability.Template:Ref label During the initial entrance into Haiti, the specific order from the Secretary of the Navy to the invasion commander, Admiral William Deville Bundy, was to "protect American and foreign" interests.Template:Citation needed

1916 – China: American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.Template:Ref label

1916–24 – Dominican Republic: From May 1916 to September 1924, Occupation of the Dominican Republic. American naval forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.Template:Ref label

1917 – China: American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.Template:Ref label

1917–18Wikipedia:World War I: On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war with Germany and on December 7, 1917, with Austria-Hungary. Entrance of the United States into the war was precipitated by Germany's submarine warfare against neutral shipping and the Wikipedia:Zimmermann Telegram.Template:Ref label

1917–22 – Cuba: U.S. forces protected American interests during insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.Template:Ref label

1918–19 – Mexico: After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, U.S. troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919. In August 1918, American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales, Wikipedia:Battle of Ambos Nogales. The incident began when German spies plotted an attack with Mexican soldiers on Nogales Arizona. The fighting began when a Mexican officer shot and killed a U.S. soldier on American soil. A full-scale battle then ensued, ending with a Mexican surrender.Template:Ref label

1918–20 – Panama: U.S. forces were used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.Template:Ref label

1918–20 – Russian SFSR: Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements. Template:Ref label For details, see the Wikipedia:American Expeditionary Force Siberia and the Wikipedia:American Expeditionary Force North Russia.

1919 – Dalmatia (Croatia): U.S. forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.Template:Ref label

1919 – Turkey: Marines from the USS Arizona were landed to guard the U.S. Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.Template:Ref label

1919 – Honduras: From September 8 to 12, a landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.Template:Ref label


1920 – China: On March 14, a landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.Template:Ref label

1920 – Guatemala: From April 9 to 27, U.S. forces protected the American Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.Template:Ref label

1920–22 – Russia (Siberia): From February 16, 1920 to November 19, 1922, a Marine guard was sent to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.Template:Ref label

1921 – Panama and Costa Rica: American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.Template:Ref label

1922 – Turkey: In September and October, a landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish nationalists entered İzmir (Wikipedia:Smyrna).Template:Ref label

1922–23 – China: From April 1922 to November 1923, Marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.Template:Ref label

1924 – Honduras: From February 28 to March 31, and from September 10 to 15, U.S. forces protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.Template:Ref label

1924 – China: In September, Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.Template:Ref label

1925 – China: From January 15 to August 29, fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.Template:Ref label

1925 – Honduras: From April 19 to 21, U.S. forces protected foreigners at Wikipedia:La Ceiba during a political upheaval.Template:Ref label

1925 – Panama: From October 12 to 23, strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.Template:Ref label

1926–33 – Nicaragua: From May 7 to June 5, 1926 and August 27, 1926 to January 3, 1933, the coup d'état of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces came and went intermittently until January 3, 1933.Template:Ref label

1926 – China: In August and September, the Nationalist attack on Hankow brought the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.Template:Ref label

1927 – China: In February, fighting at Shanghai caused presence American naval forces and marines to be increased. In March, a naval guard was stationed at American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of Marines and naval forces were stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin.Template:Ref label


1932 – China: American forces were landed to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.Template:Ref label

1932 – United States: "Wikipedia:Bonus Army" of 17,000 WWI veterans plus 20,000 family cleared from Washington and then Anacostia flats "Hooverville" by 3rd Cavalry and 12th Infantry Regiments under Gen. Douglas MacArthur, July 28.

1933 – Cuba: During a revolution against President Gerardo Machado naval forces demonstrated but no landing was made.Template:Ref label

1934 – China: Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.Template:Ref label


1940 – Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, – Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Wikipedia:Trinidad, and Wikipedia:British Guiana: Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained under lease by negotiation with the United Kingdom. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases but were under the Wikipedia:Destroyers for Bases Agreement.Template:Ref label

1941 – Greenland: Greenland was taken under protection of the United States in April.Template:Ref label

1941 – Netherlands (Dutch Guiana): In November, the President ordered American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Suriname.Template:Ref label

1941 – Iceland: Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States, with consent of its government replacing British troops, for strategic reasons.Template:Ref label

1941 – Germany: Sometime in the spring, the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July, U.S. warships were convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, in response to the October 31, 1941 sinking of the Template:USS, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect U.S. military aid to Britain. Template:Ref label

1941–45Wikipedia:World War II: On December 7, 1941, the United States declared war against Japan in response to the bombing of Pearl Harbor. On December 11, Germany declared war against the United States.[5]


1945 – China: In October 50,000 U.S. Marines were sent to North China to assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This was in addition to approximately 60,000 U.S. forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.Template:Ref label

1945–49Occupation of part of Germany.

1945–55Occupation of part of Austria.

1945–52Wikipedia:Occupation of Japan.

1944–46 – Temporary reoccupation of the Wikipedia:Philippines during World War II and in preparation for previously scheduled independence.Template:Citation needed

1945–47U.S. Marines garrisoned in mainland China to oversee the removal of Soviet and Japanese forces after World War II.[6]

1945–49 – Post-World War II occupation of Wikipedia:South Korea; North Korean insurgency in Republic of Korea[7]

1946Wikipedia:Trieste, (Italy): President Truman ordered the increase of US troops along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed US Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia..Template:Citation needed Earlier U.S. naval units had been sent to the scene.Template:Ref label Later the Wikipedia:Free Territory of Trieste, Zone A.

1948 – Jerusalem (British Mandate): A Marine consular guard was sent to Jerusalem to protect the U.S. Consul General.Template:Ref label

1948 – Berlin: Wikipedia:Berlin Airlift After the Soviet Union established a land blockade of the U.S., British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the United States and its allies airlifted supplies to Berlin until after the blockade was lifted in May 1949.Template:Ref label

1948–49 – China: Marines were dispatched to Nanking to protect the American Embassy when the city fell to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.Template:Ref label


right|thumb|Map of military operations since 1950 1950–53Wikipedia:Korean War: The United States responded to the North Korean invasion of South Korea by going to its assistance, pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolutions. US forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the active conflict (1953). Over 36,600 US military were killed in action.Template:Ref label

1950–55 – Formosa (Taiwan): In June 1950, at the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman ordered the U.S. Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.Template:Ref label

1954–55 – China: Naval units evacuated U.S. civilians and military personnel from the Tachen Islands.Template:Ref label

1955–64 – Vietnam: First military advisors sent to Vietnam on 12 Feb 1955. By 1964, US troop levels had grown to 21,000. On 7 August 1964, US Congress approved Gulf of Tonkin resolution affirming "All necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States. . .to prevent further aggression. . . (and) assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asian Collective Defense Treaty (SEATO) requesting assistance. . ."Template:Ref label

1956 – Egypt: A marine battalion evacuated US nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Wikipedia:Suez Crisis.Template:Ref label

1958 – Lebanon: Wikipedia:1958 Lebanon crisis, Marines were landed in Lebanon at the invitation of President Wikipedia:Camille Chamoun to help protect against threatened insurrection supported from the outside. The President's action was supported by a Congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.Template:Ref label

1959–60 – The Caribbean: Second Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect U.S. nationals following the Wikipedia:Cuban Revolution.Template:Ref label

1959–75Wikipedia:Vietnam War: U.S. military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position of the Saigon government became weaker. After citing what he falsely termed were attacks on U.S. destroyers, in what came to be known as the Wikipedia:Gulf of Tonkin incident, President Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing U.S. determination to support "freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia." Congress responded with the Wikipedia:Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, giving President Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of conventional military force in Southeast Asia. Following this resolution, and following a communist attack on a U.S. installation in central Vietnam, the United States escalated its participation in the war to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.Template:Ref label


1961 – Cuba: The Bay of Pigs Invasion, known in Hispanic America as Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos (or Invasión de Playa Girón or Batalla de Girón), was an unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.

1961 - Operation Mongoose (WP) - Cuba : Chemicals on the cane fields in order to cause sickness among sugar cane workers. U.S. agents repeatedly contaminated exported Cuban sugar. The CIA later admitted that during the 1960s it undertook clandestine anti-crop warfare “research” targeting a number of countries under its MK-ULTRA program, but claimed its records had been destroyed.

1962 – Thailand: The Third Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support that country during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30, the 5,000 marines had been withdrawn.Template:Ref label

1962 – Cuba: Wikipedia:Cuban missile crisis, On October 22, President Kennedy instituted a "quarantine" on the shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He also warned Soviet Union that the launching of any missile from Cuba against nations in the Western Hemisphere would bring about U.S. nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A negotiated settlement was achieved in a few days.Template:Ref label

1962–75 – Laos: From October 1962 until 1975, the United States played an important role in military support of anti-Communist forces in Laos.Template:Ref label

1964 – Congo (Zaïre): The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.Template:Ref label

1965 – Invasion of Dominican Republic: Wikipedia:Operation Power Pack, The United States intervened to protect lives and property during a Dominican revolt and sent 20,000 U.S. troops as fears grew that the revolutionary forces were coming increasingly under Communist control.Template:Ref label A popular rebellion breaks out, promising to reinstall Juan Bosch as the country's elected leader. The revolution is crushed when U.S. Marines land to uphold the military regime by force. The CIA directs everything behind the scenes.

1967 – Israel: The USS Liberty incident, whereupon a United States Navy Technical Research Ship was attacked June 8, 1967 by Israeli armed forces, killing 34 and wounding more than 170 U.S. crew members.

1967 – Congo (Zaïre): The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.Template:Ref label

1968 – Laos & Cambodia: U.S. starts secret bombing campaign against targets along the Wikipedia:Ho Chi Minh trail in the sovereign nations of Cambodia and Laos. The bombings last at least two years. (See Operation Commando Hunt)

1969 – Cuba : As Castro mobilized to bring in ten million tons of sugar, the CIA sabotaged the harvest by seeding clouds to cause torrential rains in nearby provinces while leaving the cane fields parched[8]


1970Wikipedia:Cambodian Campaign: U.S. troops were ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked U.S. and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam. The object of this attack, which lasted from April 30 to June 30, was to ensure the continuing safe withdrawal of American forces from South Vietnam and to assist the program of Wikipedia:Vietnamization.Template:Ref label

1971 - Cuba : U.S. infected pigs with African swine fever; the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere. Cuba was forced to slaughter the entire pig population (some 500,000 animals), eliminating the supply of pork, a staple of the Cuban diet. Cuban government spokesmen accused Washington of the biological attack, U.S. officials dismissed it. In 1977, under the scrutiny of post-Watergate Congressional investigations of U.S. intelligence agencies, a New York paper quoted a “U.S. intelligence source” : “he was given the virus in a sealed, unmarked container at a U.S. Army base and CIA training ground in Panama with instructions to turn it over to the anti-Castro group”[9] The article explained in detail how the virus was transferred from Fort Gulick to Cuba.

1972 – North Vietnam: Christmas bombing Wikipedia:Operation Linebacker II (not mentioned in RL30172, but an operation leading to peace negotiations). The operation was conducted from 18–29 December 1972. It was a bombing of the cities Hanoi and Haiphong by B-52 bombers.

1973Wikipedia:Operation Nickel Grass, a Wikipedia:strategic airlift operation conducted by the United States to deliver weapons and supplies to Wikipedia:Israel during the Wikipedia:Yom Kippur War.

1974 – Evacuation from Cyprus: United States naval forces evacuated U.S. civilians during the Wikipedia:Turkish invasion of Cyprus.Template:Ref label

1975 – Evacuation from Vietnam: Wikipedia:Operation Frequent Wind, On April 3, 1975, President Ford reported U.S. naval vessels, helicopters, and Marines had been sent to assist in evacuation of refugees and US nationals from Vietnam.Template:Ref label

1975 – Evacuation from Cambodia: Operation Eagle Pull, On April 12, 1975, President Ford reported that he had ordered U.S. military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of U.S. citizens from Cambodia.Template:Ref label

1975 – South Vietnam: On April 30, 1975, President Ford reported that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 Marines had evacuated about 1,400 U.S. citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing zones in and around the Wikipedia:U.S. Embassy, Saigon and Wikipedia:Tan Son Nhut Airport.Template:Ref label

1975 – Cambodia: Mayaguez incident, On May 15, 1975, President Ford reported he had ordered military forces to retake the Template:SS, a merchant vessel which was seized from Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.Template:Ref label

1976 – Lebanon: On July 22 and 23, 1976, helicopters from five U.S. naval vessels evacuated approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation had been blocked by hostilities.Template:Ref label

1976 – Korea: Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were killed by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea while cutting down a tree.Template:Ref label

1978 – Zaïre (Congo): From May 19 through June, the United States utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaïre.Template:Ref label


1980 – Iran: Wikipedia:Operation Eagle Claw, on April 26, 1980, President Carter reported the use of six U.S. transport planes and eight helicopters in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the American hostages in Wikipedia:Iran.

1981 - Cuba : U.S. introduced a virulent strain of dengue fever in Cuba; 273,000 people on the island contracted it and 158 died, including 101 children. :
An article in Covert Action (Summer 1982) detailed U.S. experiments with dengue fever at the Army’s Fort Detrick chemical/biological warfare center and its research into the Aedes aegypti mosquito which delivers it. The article noted that only Cuba of all the Caribbean countries was affected, and concluded that “the dengue epidemic could have been a covert U.S. operation.” Two years later, a leader of the Omega 7 gusano (Cuban counterrevolutionary) terrorist group, Eduardo Victor Arocena Pérez, admitted (in a Manhattan trial in which he was convicted of murdering an attaché of the Cuban Mission to the UN) that one of their groups had a mission to “carry some germs to introduce them in Cuba to be used against the Soviets and against the Cuban economy, to begin what was called chemical war” just before simultaneous outbreaks of hemorrhagic dengue fever, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, tobacco mold, sugar cane fungus and a new outbreak of African swine fever (Covert Action, Fall 1984).

1980 – U.S. Army and Air Force units arrive in the Sinai in September as part of "Operation Bright Star". They are there to train with Egyptian armed forces as part of the Camp David peace accords signed in 1979. Elements of the 101st Airborne Division, (1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry) and Air Force MAC (Military Airlift Command) units are in theater for four months & are the first U.S. military forces in the region since World War II.

1981 – El Salvador: After a guerrilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional U.S. military advisers were sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55, to assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency.Template:Ref label

1981 – Libya: First Gulf of Sidra incident, on August 19, 1981, U.S. planes based on the carrier USS Nimitz shot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The United States periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international waters by the United States.Template:Ref label

1982 – Sinai: On March 19, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of military personnel and equipment to participate in the Wikipedia:Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai. Participation had been authorized by the Multinational Force and Observers Resolution, Public Law 97-132.Template:Ref label

1982 – Lebanon: Wikipedia:Multinational Force in Lebanon, on August 21, 1982, President Reagan reported the dispatch of 800 Marines to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. The Marines left September 20, 1982.Template:Ref label

1982–83 – Lebanon: On September 29, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of 1200 marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty. On September 29, 1983, Congress passed the Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (P.L. 98-119) authorizing the continued participation for eighteen months.Template:Ref label

1983 – Egypt: After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.Template:Ref label

1983 – Grenada: Wikipedia:Operation Urgent Fury, citing the increased threat of Soviet and Cuban influence and noting the development of an international airport following a coup d'état and alignment with the Soviet Union and Cuba, the U.S. invades the island nation of Grenada.Template:Ref label

1983–89 – Honduras: In July 1983, the United States undertook a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua. On March 25, 1986, unarmed U.S. military helicopters and crewmen ferried Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops.Template:Ref label

1983 – Chad: On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel forces.Template:Ref label

1984 – Persian Gulf: On June 5, 1984, Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by intelligence from a U.S. AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a U.S. KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian fighter planes over an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.Template:Ref label

1985 – Italy: On October 10, 1985, U.S. Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner and forced it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.Template:Ref label

1986 – Libya: Wikipedia:Action in the Gulf of Sidra (1986), on March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported on March 24 and 25, U.S. forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation exercises around the Wikipedia:Gulf of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and the United States had responded with missiles.Template:Ref label

1986 – Libya: Wikipedia:Operation El Dorado Canyon, on April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that U.S. air and naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and military installations in the Libyan capitol of Tripoli, claiming that Libyan leader Col. Wikipedia:Muammar Gaddafi was responsible for a bomb attack at a German disco that killed two U.S. soldiers.Template:Ref label

1986 – Bolivia: U.S. Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in anti-drug operations.Template:Ref label

1987 – Persian Gulf: Template:USS was struck on May 17 by two Exocet antiship missiles fired from a Wikipedia:Dassault Mirage F1 of the Wikipedia:Iraqi Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War, killing 37 U.S. Navy sailors.

1987 – Persian Gulf: Wikipedia:Operation Nimble Archer. Attacks on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf by United States Navy forces on October 19. The attack was a response to Iran's October 16, 1987 attack on the MV Sea Isle City, a reflagged Kuwaiti oil tanker at anchor off Kuwait, with a Silkworm missile.

1987–88 – Persian Gulf: Wikipedia:Operation Earnest Will. After the Wikipedia:Iran–Iraq War (the Tanker War phase) resulted in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the United States increased U.S. joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopted a policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Persian Gulf to protect them from Iraqi and Iranian attacks. President Reagan reported that U.S. ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on September 21 (Wikipedia:Iran Ajr), October 8, and October 19, 1987 and April 18 (Wikipedia:Operation Praying Mantis), July 3, and July 14, 1988. The United States gradually reduced its forces after a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq on August 20, 1988.Template:Ref label It was the largest naval convoy operation since World War II.[10]

1987–88 – Persian Gulf: Wikipedia:Operation Prime Chance was a United States Special Operations Command operation intended to protect U.S.-flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran–Iraq War. The operation took place roughly at the same time as Operation Earnest Will.

1988 – Persian Gulf: Wikipedia:Operation Praying Mantis was the April 18, 1988 action waged by U.S. naval forces in retaliation for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf and the subsequent damage to an American warship.

1988 – Honduras: Wikipedia:Operation Golden Pheasant was an emergency deployment of U.S. troops to Honduras in 1988, as a result of threatening actions by the forces of the (then socialist) Nicaraguans.

1988Template:USS shoot-down of Wikipedia:Iran Air Flight 655.

1988 – Panama: In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in Panama and as the United States increased pressure on Panamanian head of state General Wikipedia:Manuel Noriega to resign, the United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to "further safeguard the canal, US lives, property and interests in the area." The forces supplemented 10,000 U.S. military personnel already in the Panama Canal Zone.Template:Ref label

1989 – Libya: Second Gulf of Sidra incident. On January 4, 1989, two U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft based on the USS John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The U.S. pilots said the Libyan planes had demonstrated hostile intentions.Template:Ref label

1989 – Panama: On May 11, 1989, in response to General Noriega's disregard of the results of the Panamanian election, President Bush ordered a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 1,000 U.S. forces already in the area.Template:Ref label

1989 – Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru: Andean Initiative in War on Drugs, On September 15, 1989, President Bush announced that military and law enforcement assistance would be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers. By mid-September there were 50–100 U.S. military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2–12 persons to train troops in the three countries.Template:Ref label

1989 – Philippines: Operation Classic Resolve, On December 2, 1989, President Bush reported that on December 1, Air Force fighters from Wikipedia:Clark Air Base in Wikipedia:Luzon had assisted the Aquino government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100 marines were sent from Wikipedia:U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay to protect the Wikipedia:United States Embassy in Manila.Template:Ref label

1989–90 – Panama: Wikipedia:United States invasion of Panama and Wikipedia:Operation Just Cause, On December 21, 1989, President Bush reported that he had ordered U.S. military forces to Panama to protect the lives of American citizens and bring General Noriega to justice. By February 13, 1990, all the invasion forces had been withdrawn.Template:Ref label Around 200 Panamanian civilians were reported killed. The Panamanian head of state, General Manuel Noriega, was captured and brought to the U.S.


1990 – Liberia: On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated U.S. citizens from Liberia.Template:Ref label

1990 – Saudi Arabia: On August 9, 1990, President Bush reported that he launched Operation Desert Shield by ordering the forward deployment of substantial elements of the U.S. armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the August 2 Wikipedia:invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. On November 16, 1990, he reported the continued buildup of the forces to ensure an adequate offensive military option.Template:Ref labelAmerican hostages being held in Iran.Template:Ref label Staging point for the troops was primarily Bagram air field.

1991 – Iraq and Kuwait: Wikipedia:Gulf War, On January 16, 1991, in response to the refusal by Iraq to leave Kuwait, U.S. and Coalition aircraft attacked Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait in conjunction with a coalition of allies and under Wikipedia:United Nations Security Council resolutions. On February 24, 1991, U.S.-led United Nation (UN) forces launched a ground offensive that finally drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait within 100 hours. Combat operations ended on February 28, 1991, when President Bush declared a ceasefire.Template:Ref label

1991–96 – Iraq: Wikipedia:Operation Provide Comfort, Delivery of humanitarian relief and military protection for Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq during the 1991 uprising, by a small Allied ground force based in Turkey which began in April 1991.

1991 – Iraq: On May 17, 1991, President Bush stated that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of U.S. forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.Template:Ref label

1991 – Zaire: On September 25–27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting broke out in Wikipedia:Kinshasa, Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops and equipment into Kinshasa. American planes also carried 300 French troops into the Wikipedia:Central African Republic and hauled evacuated American citizens.Template:Ref label

1992 – Sierra Leone: Wikipedia:Operation Silver Anvil, Following the April 29 coup that overthrew President Wikipedia:Joseph Saidu Momoh, a Wikipedia:United States European Command (USEUCOM) Joint Special Operations Task Force evacuated 438 people (including 42 Third Country nationals) on May 3. Two Wikipedia:Air Mobility Command (AMC) C-141s flew 136 people from Wikipedia:Freetown, Sierra Leone, to the Wikipedia:Rhein-Main Air Base in Germany and nine C-130 sorties carried another 302 people to Wikipedia:Dakar, Wikipedia:Senegal.Template:Ref label

1992–96 – Bosnia and Herzegovina: Wikipedia:Operation Provide Promise was a humanitarian relief operation in Wikipedia:Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Wikipedia:Yugoslav Wars, from July 2, 1992, to January 9, 1996, which made it the longest running humanitarian airlift in history.[11]

1992 – Kuwait: On August 3, 1992, the United States began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to cooperate with UN inspection teams.Template:Ref label

1992–2003 – Iraq: Wikipedia:Iraqi no-fly zones, The U.S., United Kingdom, and its Gulf War allies declared and enforced "no-fly zones" over the majority of sovereign Iraqi airspace, prohibiting Iraqi flights in zones in southern Iraq and northern Iraq, conducting aerial reconnaissance, and several specific attacks on Iraqi air-defense systems as part of the UN mandate. Often, Iraqi forces continued throughout a decade by firing on U.S. and British aircraft patrolling no-fly zones.(See also Wikipedia:Operation Northern Watch, Wikipedia:Operation Southern Watch) Template:Ref label

1992–95 – Somalia: Operation Restore Hope, Somali Civil War: On December 10, 1992, President Bush reported that he had deployed U.S. armed forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a UN Security Council Resolution in support for UNITAF. The operation came to an end on May 4, 1993. U.S. forces continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (Wikipedia:UNOSOM II).(See also Battle of Mogadishu)Template:Ref label

1993–95 – Bosnia: Wikipedia:Operation Deny Flight, On April 12, 1993, in response to a United Nations Security Council passage of Resolution 816, U.S. and NATO enforced the no-fly zone over the Bosnian airspace, prohibited all unauthorized flights and allowed to "take all necessary measures to ensure compliance with [the no-fly zone restrictions]."

1993 – Macedonia: On July 9, 1993, President Clinton reported the deployment of 350 U.S. soldiers to the Republic of Macedonia to participate in the UN Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area of former Yugoslavia.Template:Ref label

1994 – Bosnia: Wikipedia:Banja Luka incident, NATO become involved in the first combat situation when NATO Wikipedia:U.S. Air Force Wikipedia:F-16 jets shot down four of the six Bosnian Serb Wikipedia:J-21 Jastreb single-seat light attack jets for violating UN-mandated no-fly zone.

1994–95 – Haiti: Wikipedia:Operation Uphold Democracy, U.S. ships had begun embargo against Haiti. Up to 20,000 U.S. military troops were later deployed to Haiti to restore democratically-elected Haiti President Wikipedia:Jean-Bertrand Aristide from a military regime which came into power in 1991 after a major coup.Template:Ref label

1994 – Macedonia: On April 19, 1994, President Clinton reported that the U.S. contingent in Macedonia had been increased by a reinforced company of 200 personnel.Template:Ref label

1995 – Bosnia: Wikipedia:Operation Deliberate Force, On August 30, 1995, U.S. and NATO aircraft began a major bombing campaign of Wikipedia:Bosnian Serb Army in response to a Bosnian Serb mortar attack on a Sarajevo market that killed 37 people on August 28, 1995. This operation lasted until September 20, 1995. The air campaign along with a combined allied ground force of Muslim and Croatian Army against Serb positions led to a Wikipedia:Dayton Agreement in December 1995 with the signing of warring factions of the war. As part of Wikipedia:Operation Joint Endeavor, U.S. and NATO dispatched the Implementation Force (Wikipedia:IFOR) peacekeepers to Bosnia to uphold the Dayton agreement.Template:Ref label

1996 – Liberia: Wikipedia:Operation Assured Response, On April 11, 1996, President Clinton reported that on April 9, 1996 due to the :"deterioration of the security situation and the resulting threat to American citizens" in Liberia he had ordered U.S. military forces to evacuate from that country "private U.S. citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken refuge in the U.S. Embassy compound...."Template:Ref label

1996 – Central African Republic, Wikipedia:Operation Quick Response: On May 23, 1996, President Clinton reported the deployment of U.S. military personnel to Wikipedia:Bangui, Wikipedia:Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from that country of "private U.S. citizens and certain U.S. government employees", and to provide "enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui."Template:Ref label Wikipedia:United States Marine Corps elements of Joint Task Force Assured Response, responding in nearby Liberia, provided security to the embassy and evacuated 448 people, including between 190 and 208 Americans. The last Marines left Bangui on June 22.

1996 – Kuwait: Wikipedia:Operation Desert Strike, American Air Strikes in the north to protect the Kurdish population against the Iraqi Army attacks.

1996 – Bosnia: Wikipedia:Operation Joint Guard, On December 21, 1996, U.S. and NATO established the SFOR peacekeepers to replace the IFOR in enforcing the peace under the Dayton agreement.

1997 – Albania: Wikipedia:Operation Silver Wake, On March 13, 1997, U.S. military forces were used to evacuate certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens from Tirana, Albania.Template:Ref label

1997 – Congo and Gabon: On March 27, 1997, President Clinton reported on March 25, 1997, a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon to provide enhanced security and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.Template:Ref label

1997 – Sierra Leone: On May 29 and May 30, 1997, U.S. military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens.Template:Ref label

1997 – Cambodia: On July 11, 1997, In an effort to ensure the security of American citizens in Cambodia during a period of domestic conflict there, a Task Force of about 550 U.S. military personnel were deployed at Utapao Air Base in Thailand for possible evacuations. Template:Ref label

1998 – Iraq: Operation Desert Fox, U.S. and British forces conduct a major four-day bombing campaign from December 16–19, 1998 on Iraqi targets.Template:Ref label

1998 – Guinea-Bissau: Wikipedia:Operation Shepherd Venture, On June 10, 1998, in response to an army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangering the U.S. Embassy, President Clinton deployed a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel to Dakar, Senegal, to evacuate from the city of Bissau.Template:Ref label

1998–99 – Kenya and Tanzania: U.S. military personnel were deployed to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombing of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.Template:Ref label

1998 – Afghanistan and Sudan: Operation Infinite Reach, On August 20, President Clinton ordered a cruise missile attack against two suspected terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical factory in Sudan.Template:Ref label

1998 – Liberia: On September 27, 1998, America deployed a stand-by response and evacuation force of 30 U.S. military personnel to increase the security force at the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia. [1] Template:Ref label

1999–2001 – East Timor: Limited number of U.S. military forces deployed with the Wikipedia:United Nations-mandated Wikipedia:International Force for East Timor restore peace to East Timor.Template:Ref label

1999 – Serbia: Operation Allied Force: U.S. and NATO aircraft began a major bombing of Wikipedia:Serbia and Serb positions in Kosovo on March 24, 1999, during the Wikipedia:Kosovo War due to the refusal by Serbian President Wikipedia:Slobodan Milošević to end repression against ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. This operation ended in June 10, 1999, when Milošević agreed to pull out his troops out of Kosovo. In response to the situation in Kosovo, NATO dispatched the KFOR peacekeepers to secure the peace under UNSC Resolution 1244.Template:Ref label


  • 2000 – Sierra Leone: On May 12, 2000, a U.S. Navy patrol craft deployed to Sierra Leone to support evacuation operations from that country if needed.Template:Ref label
  • 2000 – Nigeria: Special Forces troops are sent to Nigeria to lead a training mission in the county.[12]
  • 2000 – Yemen: On October 12, 2000, after the Template:USS attack in the port of Aden, Yemen, military personnel were deployed to Aden.Template:Ref label
  • 2000 – East Timor: On February 25, 2000, a small number of U.S. military personnel were deployed to support the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). Template:Ref label
  • 2001 – On April 1, 2001, a mid-air collision between a United States Navy EP-3E ARIES II signals surveillance aircraft and a People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) J-8II interceptor fighter jet resulted in an international dispute between the United States and the People's Republic of China called the Wikipedia:Hainan Island incident.
  • 2001–presentWar in Afghanistan: The Wikipedia:War on Terror begins with Wikipedia:Operation Enduring Freedom. On October 7, 2001, U.S. Armed Forces invade Afghanistan in response to the Wikipedia:9/11 attacks and "begin combat action in Afghanistan against Al Qaeda terrorists and their Taliban supporters."Template:Ref label
  • 2002 – Yemen: On November 3, 2002, an American Wikipedia:MQ-1 Predator fired a Hellfire missile at a car in Yemen killing Wikipedia:Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi, an al-Qaeda leader thought to be responsible for the Wikipedia:USS Cole bombing.Template:Ref label
  • 2002 – Philippines: OEF-Philippines, As of January, U.S. "combat-equipped and combat support forces" have been deployed to the Philippines to train with, assist and advise the Philippines' Armed Forces in enhancing their "counterterrorist capabilities."Template:Ref label
  • 2002 – Côte d'Ivoire: On September 25, 2002, in response to a rebellion in Côte d'Ivoire, U.S. military personnel went into Côte d'Ivoire to assist in the evacuation of American citizens from Wikipedia:Bouaké.[13]Template:Ref label
  • 2003–2011War in Iraq: Wikipedia:Operation Iraqi Freedom, March 20, 2003, The United States leads a coalition that includes the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland to invade Iraq with the stated goal being "to disarm Iraq in pursuit of peace, stability, and security both in the Gulf region and in the United States."Template:Ref label
  • 2003 – Liberia: Wikipedia:Second Liberian Civil War, On June 9, 2003, President Bush reported that on June 8 he had sent about 35 U.S. Marines into Monrovia, Liberia, to help secure the U.S. Embassy in Nouakchott, Mauritania, and to aid in any necessary evacuation from either Liberia or Mauritania.Template:Ref label
  • 2003Georgia and Wikipedia:Djibouti: "US combat equipped and support forces" had been deployed to Georgia and Djibouti to help in enhancing their "counterterrorist capabilities."[14]
  • 2004 – Haiti: Wikipedia:2004 Haitian coup d'état occurs, The US first sent 55 combat equipped military personnel to augment the U.S. Embassy security forces there and to protect American citizens and property in light. Later 200 additional US combat-equipped, military personnel were sent to prepare the way for a UN Multinational Interim Force, Wikipedia:MINUSTAH.Template:Ref label
  • 2004 – War on Terror: U.S. anti-terror related activities were underway in Georgia, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea.[15]
  • 2007 - The Mogadishu Encounter, on November 4, 2007, Somali Pirate's boarded and attacked a Wikipedia:North Korean merchant vessel. Passing U.S Navy Ships and a helicopter that were patrolling at the time responded to the attack. Once the ship was freed from the pirates, the American forces were given permission to board and assist the wounded crew and handle surviving pirates.
  • 2007 – Somalia: Wikipedia:Battle of Ras Kamboni, On January 8, 2007, while the conflict between the Islamic Courts Union and the Transitional Federal Government continues, an Wikipedia:AC-130 gunship conducts an aerial strike on a suspected al-Qaeda operative, along with other Islamist fighters, on Badmadow Island near Ras Kamboni in southern Somalia.[18]
  • 2008Wikipedia:South Ossetia, Georgia: Helped Georgia humanitarian aid,[19] helped to transport Georgian forces from Iraq during the conflict. In the past, the US has provided training and weapons to Georgia.


Battles with the Native AmericansEdit

Main article: List of American Indian Wars

Template:See also


Armed insurrections and slave revoltsEdit

See also: Wikipedia:Slave rebellion, Wikipedia:Tax revolt

Range warsEdit

Template:See also

Bloody local feudsEdit

Bloodless boundary disputesEdit

Terrorist, paramilitary groups and guerrilla warfareEdit

18th and 19th centuryEdit

20th and 21st centuryEdit

Labor–management disputesEdit


State and national secession attemptsEdit


Riots and public disorderEdit


Latter-day SaintsEdit

Republic of TexasEdit

See alsoEdit



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Template:Note labelRL30172: "Congressional Research Service report RL30172". Retrieved 2006-07-15. 
  2. Wikipedia:Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations of the United States
  3. "American History: The Mexican–American War". Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  4. Boot, Max (April 1, 2002). "The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power". Basic Books. p. 125. Template:Citation/identifier. "As many as 200,000 civilians also died, victims of disease and famine and the cruelties of both sides." 
    *Kumar, Amitava (October 29, 1999). "Poetics/Politics: Radical Aesthetics for the Classroom". Palgrave. Template:Citation/identifier. "In the fifteen years that followed the defeat of the Spanish in Manila Bay in 1898, more Filipinos were killed by U.S. forces than by the Spanish in 300 years of colonization. Over 1.5 million died out of a total population of 6 million." 
    *Painter, Nell Irvin (May 1, 1989). "Standing at Armageddon: The United States, 1877–1919". Wikipedia:W. W. Norton & Company. p. 154. Template:Citation/identifier. "Hundreds of thousands of Filipinos died in battle, of disease, or of other war-related causes." 
    *Bayor, Ronald H (June 23, 2004). "The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America". Columbia University Press. p. 335. Template:Citation/identifier. "Some seven thousand Americans and twenty thousand Filipinos were killed or wounded in the war, and hundreds of thousands of Filipinos – some estimates are as high as 1 million – died of war-related disease or famine." 
    *Template:Cite journal
    *Template:Cite journal
  5. Wikipedia:German declaration of war against the United States (1941)
  6. Frank, Benis M. (1968). "History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II, Volume V: Victory and Occupation". Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  7. MacArthur – Google Books
  8. William Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II [Common Courage Press, 1995]
  9. “CIA Link to Cuban Pig Virus Reported,” Newsday, 10 January 1977
  10. COMNAVSURFOR Hosts Medal of Honor Ceremony, United States Navy, October 4, 2007,, retrieved 2008-01-10 
  11. John Pike. "Operation Provide Promise from". Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  12. US reasserts its interests in Africa, sending troops to Nigeria
  13. "Text of a Letter from the President to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate". The White House. September 26, 2002. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  14. "Presidential Letter". The White House. September 19, 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  15. "Presidential Letter". The White House. March 20, 2004. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Lebanon Non-combatant Evacuation Operation (NEO) 2006". Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  17. Josh White (July 18, 2006). "U.S. Prepares Huge Lebanon Evacuation". Washington Post. p. A12. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  18. News Article: Aircraft Attack Al Qaeda Haven, Ike Moves off Somalia
  19. U.S. Assails Russian 'Escalation' Of Crisis. Washington Post. 10 August 2008.
  20. Declan Walsh. "Pilotless Drone strikes begin in Somalia". the Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  21. Secret ‘Kill List’ Proves a Test of Obama’s Principles and Will, May 29, 2012, The New York Times.
  22. "Sources: Drone strikes in Yemen kill 6, including senior AQAP leaders -". CNN. August 30, 2013. 
  23. "Obama sends 100 troops to combat LRA in Uganda". The Guardian. London. October 14, 2011. 
  24. "U.S. forces raid terror targets in Libya, Somalia -". CNN. October 6, 2013. 
  25. "U.S. sending special operations forces, CV-22 Ospreys to Uganda". Navy Times. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  26. "The US Is Flying Right Into The Iran-Russia-Syria Plan In Iraq". Yahoo Finance. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  27. "Obama authorizes targeted airstrikes in Iraq". 7 August 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  28. {{cite web|url= News|work=ABC News|accessdate=1 October 2014}}
  29. "U.S. Sends Ships to Strait of Hormuz To Shield Vessels After Iran Seizure". 1 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  30. "The 1993 Bombing". Retrieved 6 November 2012. 


Further readingEdit

  • Crandall, Russell (2006). Gunboat democracy: US interventions in the Dominican Republic, Grenada and Panama (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers).
  • Allan Reed Millet & Peter Maslowski For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States. ISBN 978-0-02-921597-5 Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group, 1994.
  • Bill Yenne Indian Wars: The Campaign for the American West ISBN 1-59416-016-3, Westholme, 2005

External linksEdit

Wikipedia:Template:American conflicts Wikipedia:Template:US military navbox

Wikipedia:Template:Cold War Wikipedia:Template:American Civil War Wikipedia:Template:Vietnam War graphical timeline Wikipedia:Template:United States topics

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