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List of terms for white people in non-Western cultures
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Many non-Western cultures have informal ethnonyms which refer to Westerners and/or foreigners. Because of the current economic and political power of Europe and North America and the history of European imperialism, the inhabitants of many countries may encounter people from these regions more than those from other regions, as tourists, businessmen and political representatives. The following is a list of words that non-Western languages use to refer to people from the West. These words may mean "foreigner" in general, but are popularly applied to foreigners of European ancestry specifically. Some, but not all, may have a pejorative tone. Some directly address white people's skin color.
List of common words for white WesternersEdit
- Amharic: ferenge (also used by other languages in Ethiopia)
- Burmese: Bo
- Cherokee: ᏲᏁᎦ (yonega, "white"), ᎫᎴ (gule, "pigeon")
- Chinese: 外國人, or 老外 (Wikipedia:lǎowài) (See also Wikipedia:Mandarin Chinese profanity#Against westerners)
- Cantonese: 鬼佬 (Wikipedia:gweilo) (used in Wikipedia:Hong Kong Wikipedia:Singapore and southern China)
- Wikipedia:Hokkien: 红毛 (ang moh) (used in Wikipedia:Singapore and Wikipedia:Malaysia)
- Taiwanese: a-tok-a (used in Wikipedia:Taiwan, meaning approximately "big nose"); hóng máo fan (used in Taiwan, mandarin version of 'Ang Mo', "red bearded people", traditionally used to indicate whites of Dutch origin, who brought many Chinese to Taiwan)
- Wikipedia:Cook Island Maori: Papa'a (used in Wikipedia:Rarotongan dialect, sometimes said to refer to four layers of clothing  of colonial Europeans, 'a' being the number 4 in Wikipedia:Cook Island Maori)
- Filipino: kanô, derived from "amerikano" (American). Another is "putî", denoting the color white. Foreigners will often hear calls of "Hey Joe!" from locals trying to get their attention.
- Ewe: yovo (used in Wikipedia:Togo and Wikipedia:Benin in various West African languages)
- Wikipedia:Greenlandic: Qallunaaq, derived from qalluk (brow) and naaq (stomarch).
- Wikipedia:Haitian Creole and Wikipedia:Mauritian Creole: blan (from the French word for white, "blanc")
- Hawaiian: Wikipedia:haole
- Hopi: Pahana
- Igbo: Onyeocha, Bèké (Used in the Igbo region of Eastern Nigeria)
- Wikipedia:Inuktituk: Qallunaat
- Wikipedia:Inupiaq, Alaskan Eskimo: "Gussuk", originally meant "arrogant person", because they believed the white man did not know about humility.
- Indonesian: Wikipedia:bule, anjing belanda (meaning "dutch dog" typically used for the Dutch colonials),
- Javanese: Wikipedia:londo (from Portuguese term Belanda meaning the Netherlands),
- Japanese: 外人 (Wikipedia:gaijin, literally "outsider, foreigner")
- Khmer: បារាំង (barang)
- Derived from the Thai Wikipedia:farang
- Wikipedia:Kinyarwanda: Umuzungu (singular), Abazungu (plural), possibly derived from Swahili; also rutuku (meaning the red ones)
- Korean: 외국인 (wehgukin, literally "foreigner". Used for all non-Koreans), 백인 (baeg-in, literally "white people"
- Lakota: Wikipedia:Wasi'chu, "taker of the fat"
- Lao: Boksidar, literally "guava" - also see Thai "Farang" and "Khon Khao," meaning "foreigner" and "person white," respectively
- Wikipedia:Lingala: mundèle
- Wikipedia:Luo: ja rachar
- Malagasy: vazaha
- Malay: mat salleh,
- "Mat salleh" refers to white males in Malaysia, derived from "mad sailor". The female version is Minah Salleh. Minah is short for Aminah, a common name for Malay girls in the post world war II era.
- "Orang Putih" refers to all white people in Malay. It just means "white person."
- "Buaya" literally 'Crocodile' used in Singapore especially for white expats, who -like the eyes of a crocodile- are always on the look out for opportunities and local girls.
- "Monyet" meaning "monkey", used in colonial Wikipedia:Singapore, to greet white people. Pretending to say "Good morning Sir" they would actually say "Good monyet Sir".
- Malayalam: "Sayippu" refers to white males in Kerala. "Madamma" is the word used for white females. "Paragi", "Landakkaran" are also used.
- Māori: Wikipedia:pākehā
- Wikipedia:Mapudungun: huinca
- Motu: taukuruku - probably more accurately taukurokuro - meaning "white man"
- Wikipedia:Papiamento: Wikipedia:Macamba. Literally: "white monkey". Used to refer to those of Dutch ancestry living in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao.
- Samoan: Wikipedia:palagi or papalagi (also used in Tongan)
- Setswana: "Lekgoa" which means 'foreigner.' Also used in Sesotho and Sepedi.
- Secwepemctsin: Wikipedia:seme7
- Shona: murungu, mukiwa
- "Sudda" which literally means 'whitey'
- "Thambapu Issa", which means 'boiled prawn' - as white people usually got sunburned in the tropical island of Wikipedia:Sri Lanka
- "Kiri Panuwa", which means 'milk worm' - this was primarily used as a slur during the colonial era.
- Somali: "Cadaan", which means 'white man'. It is used to refer to all people of Wikipedia:Europe and Wikipedia:North America.
- Spanish: "'Gringo'", used commonly in Spanish-speaking America, specifically referring to North Americans. "Guiri" is a common term in Spain used to refer to Northern Europeans and North Americans. "Güero" is common in Mexico for a person with light hair or light skin. "Yuma" is a common term in Cuba used for people from the United States.
- Swahili: Wikipedia:mzungu (also used in Wikipedia:Luganda, Wikipedia:Kinyarwanda, Wikipedia:Kirundi and other languages) Foreigners will also often hear calls of "John!" from locals trying to get their attention.
- "Parangiar" possibly derived from the Arabic "faranji" via Persian and Indian languages
- "Vellaiyal" literally means "white person"
- "Vellaikaran" literally means"white man"
- Thai: ฝรั่ง (Wikipedia:farang), also literally "guava."
- Possibly derived from the Arabic "faranji" via Persian and Indian languages
- Possibly derived from the French "français," pronounced "Farangset" by Thai speakers
- Turkish: Frenk
- Possibly derived from the Arabic "faranji" via Persian and Indian languages . May also reference the French (Franks) origins of prominent Crusader armies.
- Twi: obruni (used in Ghana)
- Wolof: Wikipedia:toubab (used in Wikipedia:Senegal, Wikipedia:Guinea and Wikipedia:Mali)
- Wikipedia:Urdu: سفید فام (safaid-faam), lit. "white-complexioned", a politically correct and respectful term to refer to white people.
- Vietnamese: tây  (meaning West or Western)
- Yoruba: oyinbo (used in Nigeria)
- "Oyinbo" literally means "peeled skin"
- Zulu: "umlungu" (used in many Wikipedia:Nguni languages such as Xhosa)
- ↑ "Egypt: an economic geography", By Barbara Ibrahim. I.B.Tauris, 2003. p. 12
- ↑ "Sudan's Eager Learners", By Grace McCann. The Independent. 4 November 2004.
- ↑ خواجه - Wiktionary
- ↑ "Men and popular music in Algeria: the social significance of raï", By Marc Schade-Poulson. p. 233.
- ↑ "Encarta Dictionary "mat salleh"". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. http://www.webcitation.org/5kx5Damro.
- ↑  Shona-English dictionary
- ↑ "Zimbabwe laid bare" The Telegraph. 14 March 2007.
- ↑  Lonely Planet - Nickname for foreigner word collection
- ↑ "Definition: umlungu" Reverso Dictionary
- ↑ Reconstruction of Proto-Bantu *-jungu Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 3