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List of wars involving England and France
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- It is instructive to remember that the time when nations could war against each other at will are supposed to be over. These rules are enforced for the rest of the world, but not for the United States, the one truly rogue state, not only willful but unopposed.
This article is about wars involving England and Wikipedia:France (or, after England had ceased to exist as an independent nation, Wikipedia:Kingdom of Great Britain, or the Wikipedia:United Kingdom).
Before the ConquestEdit
Prior to the Wikipedia:Norman Conquest of 1066, there were no armed conflicts between the Wikipedia:Kingdom of England and the Wikipedia:Kingdom of France. France and England were subject to repeated Wikipedia:Viking invasions, and their foreign preoccupations were primarily directed toward Scandinavia.
Such cross-Channel relations as England had were directed toward Normandy, a quasi-independent fief owing homage to the French king; Emma, daughter of Normandy's Duke Richard, became queen to two English kings in succession; two of her sons, Wikipedia:Harthacnut and Wikipedia:Edward the Confessor later became kings of England. Edward spent much of his early life (1013–1041) in Normandy and, as king, favored certain Normans with high office, such as Wikipedia:Robert of Jumièges, who became Wikipedia:Archbishop of Canterbury.
This gradual Normanization of the realm set the stage for the Norman Conquest, in which Emma's brother's grandson, William, Duke of Normandy, gained the kingdom in the first successful cross-Channel invasion since Roman times. Together with its new ruler, England acquired the foreign policy of the Norman dukes, which was based on protecting and expanding Norman interests at the expense of the French Kings. Although William's rule over Normandy had initially had the backing of King Wikipedia:Henry I of France, William's success had soon created hostility, and in 1054 and 1057 King Henry had twice attacked Normandy.
Breton War, 1076–1077Edit
This war went from 1076 to 1077.
Vexin War 1087Edit
In 1087, following the monastic retirement of its last count, William and Philip partitioned between themselves the Wikipedia:Vexin, a small but strategically important county on the middle Wikipedia:Seine that controlled the traffic between Wikipedia:Paris and Wikipedia:Rouen, the French and Norman capitals. With this buffer state eliminated, Normandy and the king's royal demesne (the Wikipedia:Île-de-France) now directly bordered on each other, and the region would be the flashpoint for several future wars. In 1087, William responded to border raids conducted by Philip's soldiers by attacking the town of Wikipedia:Mantes, during the sack of which he received an accidental injury that turned fatal.
With William's death, his realms were parted between his two sons (England to William Rufus, Normandy to Wikipedia:Robert Curthose) and the Norman-French border war concluded. Factional strains between the Norman barons, faced with a double loyalty to William's two sons, created a brief civil war in which an attempt was made to force Rufus off the English throne. With the failure of the rebellion, England and Normandy were clearly divided for the first time since 1066.
Wars in the Vexin and Maine 1097–1098Edit
Robert Curthose left on crusade in 1096, and for the duration of his absence Rufus took over the administration of Normandy. Soon afterwards (1097) he attacked the Vexin and the next year the Wikipedia:County of Maine. Rufus succeeded in defeating Maine, but the war in the Vexin ended inconclusively with a truce in 1098.
Anglo-Norman War 1101Edit
In August 1100, William Rufus was killed by an arrow-shot while hunting. His younger brother, Henry Beauclerc immediately usurped the throne. It had been expected to go to Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, but Curthose was away on crusade and did not return until a month after Rufus' death, by which time Henry was firmly in control of England, and his usurpation had been recognized by France's King Philip. Curthose was, however, able to reassert his control over Normandy, though only after giving up the County of Maine.
England and Normandy were now in the hands of the two brothers, Henry and Robert. In July 1101, Robert launched an attack on England from Normandy, and achieving a successful landing at Portsmouth, advanced inland to Alton in Hampshire. There he and Henry came to an agreement by which they accepted the status quo of the territorial division, Henry was freed from his homage to Robert, and agreed to pay the Duke an annual sum (which, however, he only did until 1103).
Anglo-Norman War 1105–1106Edit
Following increasing tensions between the brothers, and evidence of the weakness of Curthose' rule, Henry I invaded Normandy in the spring of 1105, landing at Barfleur. The following Anglo-Norman war was longer and more destructive, involving sieges of Wikipedia:Bayeux and Wikipedia:Caen; but Henry had to return to England in the late summer, and it was not until the following summer that he was able to resume the conquest of Normandy. Curthose took the opportunity of the interim to appeal to his liege lord, King Philip, but could obtain no aid from him. The fate of Curthose and the duchy was sealed at the Wikipedia:Battle of Tinchebray on 28 or 29 September 1106; Curthose was captured and imprisoned for the rest of his life. Henry was now, like his father, both King of England and Duke of Normandy, and the stage was set for a new round of conflict between England and France.
Anglo-French War 1117–1120Edit
In 1108, Philip II, who had been king since before the Norman Conquest, died and was succeeded by his son Louis VI, who had already been conducting the administration of the realm in his father's name for several years.
Louis had initially been hostile to Robert Curthose, and friendly to Henry I; but with Henry's acquisition of Normandy, the old Norman-French rivalries reëmerged. From 1109 to 1113, clashes erupted in the Vexin; and in 1117 Louis made a pact with Wikipedia:Baldwin VII of Flanders, Wikipedia:Fulk V of Anjou, and various rebellious Norman barons to overthrow Henry's rule in Normandy and replace him with Wikipedia:William Clito, Curthose's son. By luck and diplomacy, however, Henry eliminated the Flemings and Angevins from the war, and on 20 August 1119 at the Wikipedia:Battle of Bremule he defeated the French. Louis was obliged to accept Henry's rule in Normandy, and accepted his son, Wikipedia:William Adelin's homage for the fief in 1120.
As enemies Edit
- Wars of Wikipedia:Henry II of England and Wikipedia:Philip II of France
- Stephen and Matilda conflict
- Wikipedia:Anglo-French War (1202–14)
- Wikipedia:Saintonge War (1242)
- Wikipedia:War of Saint-Sardos (1324)
- Wikipedia:Hundred Years' War (1337–1453)
- Parts of the Wikipedia:Italian Wars (1511–1559)
- Wikipedia:War of the League of Cambrai
- Wikipedia:Anglo-French War (1627–1629)
- Wikipedia:Second Anglo-Dutch War (1666–1667, France sided with the Wikipedia:Dutch Republic)
- Wikipedia:War of the Grand Alliance (Nine Years' War) (1688–1697)
- Wikipedia:War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
- Wikipedia:Seven Years' War (1756–1763)
- Wikipedia:American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)
- Wikipedia:French Revolutionary Wars and the Wikipedia:Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815)
The term "Wikipedia:Second Hundred Years' War" has been proposed for the series of conflicts between 1688 and 1815.
- The Wikipedia:Crusades
- Part of the Wikipedia:Italian Wars (1511–1559)
- The Wikipedia:Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)
- The Wikipedia:Fronde (1648–1653)
- The Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1659)
- Wikipedia:Franco-Dutch War (England's involvement is known as the Wikipedia:Third Anglo-Dutch War, between 1673 and 1674)
- The Wikipedia:War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720)
- The Wikipedia:Crimean War (1854–1856)
- The Wikipedia:Boxer Rebellion (1900–1901)
- Wikipedia:World War I (1914–1918)
- Wikipedia:World War II (1939–1945)
- The Wikipedia:Korean War (1950–1953)
- The Wikipedia:Suez Crisis (1956)
- The Wikipedia:First Gulf War (1991)
- The War in Afghanistan (2001–present)