|This article contains content from Wikipedia|
An article on this subject has been nominated
for deletion at Wikipedia:
Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/
Current versions of the GNU FDL article on WP may contain information useful to the improvement of this article
- See also Wikipedia:Mindfulness, Wikipedia:Mindfulness (psychology), Wikipedia:Mindfulness (Buddhism), Wikipedia:Vipassana, Wikipedia:Satipatthana
Mindfulness meditation, also known as Wikipedia:Mindfulness and Wikipedia:Vipassana is a Wikipedia:meditation technique adapted from Buddhist Vipassana meditation that entails being in the present moment and maintaining a nonjudgmental alertness to one’s thoughts, feelings, sensations, or breath. Mindful meditation can become "a mental position for being able to separate a given experience from an associated emotion, and can facilitate a skilful or mindful response to a given situation."
Nature of the practiceEdit
Mindfulness meditation is often practiced sitting with eyes closed, perhaps cross-legged on a cushion, maybe on a chair, with the back straight. Attention is put on the sensation of breathing. As thoughts come up, one returns to focusing on breathing. One passively notices one's mind has wandered, but in an accepting, non-judgmental way. Meditators start with short periods of 10 minutes or so a day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing.
Research on effectsEdit
A 2013 meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapies, involving 209 studies and 12,145 participants, indicated that mindfulness-based therapies are moderately effective in pre-post studies, superior to some treatments such as Wikipedia:psychoeducation, Wikipedia:supportive therapy, relaxation, imagery, and art-therapy, but not more effective than traditional Wikipedia:cognitive behavioral therapy. The analysis found that mindfulness-based therapies were more effective in treating psychological disorders than it was in treating physical or medical conditions. Mindfulness-based therapies showed "large and clinically significant effects in treating anxiety and depression", with gains maintained at follow-up. These findings were similar to those obtained in previous meta-analyses. The authors acknowledged, however, the wide variation between the studies in their design, interventions, participants, outcomes, and quality; it is thus possible that their conclusions may be overstated.
A systematic study on the efficacy of various forms of meditation programs including Wikipedia:mantra, transcendental, and mindfulness meditation techniques, commissioned by the US Wikipedia:Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was published in 2014. After a review of 17,801 citations, the study based its conclusions on 41 Wikipedia:randomized controlled trials with an active control, involving 2,993 participants. It concluded that "Meditation programs, in particular mindfulness programs, reduce multiple negative dimensions of psychological stress."Template:Rp The assessment found that: (1) "Mindfulness meditation programs improved multiple dimensions of Wikipedia:negative affect, including anxiety, depression, and perceived stress/general distress ... the effects were significant for anxiety and marginally significant for depression at the end of treatment, and these effects continued to be significant at 3–6 months for both anxiety and depression";Template:Rp (2) there is a "small and consistent signal that any domain of negative affect is improved in mindfulness programs when compared with a nonspecific active control";Template:Rp (3) although the effects were small, they are "fairly comparable with what would be expected from the use of an Wikipedia:antidepressant in a Wikipedia:primary care population";Template:Rp (4) Mindfulness-based therapies "did not show superiority for any outcome" when compared to such therapies as Wikipedia:exercise, Wikipedia:yoga, Wikipedia:progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and Wikipedia:medications;Template:Rp (5) Mindfulness-based stress reduction has a small effect on general pain severity, and causes "a statistically significant 30 percent reduction in Wikipedia:abdominal pain severity at 2 months that maintained at six months".Template:Rp
As part of treatment for Wikipedia:substance abuse disorders, conclusive data for efficacy is lacking, significant methodological limitations exist and it is unclear which people with substance abuse disorders might benefit most from mindfulness meditation.
The Wikipedia:analgesic effect of mindfulness meditation involves multiple brain mechanisms including the activation of the Wikipedia:anterior cingulate cortex and the Wikipedia:ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In addition, brief periods of mindfulness meditation training increases the amount of grey matter in the Wikipedia:hippocampus and Wikipedia:parietal lobe. Other neural changes resulting from mindfulness meditation may increase the efficiency of attentional control.
- Wikipedia:Jon Kabat-Zinn
- Wikipedia:Mindfulness-based stress reduction
- Wikipedia:Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Zgierska A, Rabago D, Chawla N, Kushner K, Koehler R, Marlatt A (2009). "Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: a systematic review". 266–94. Template:Citation/identifier. Template:Citation/identifierTemplate:Only in print.
- ↑ Didonna|2008|p=27
- ↑ Kristeller|2007|p=393
- ↑ Germer|2005|p=15
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Pickert, Kate (Jan 23, 2014). "The Mindful Revolution: Finding Peace in a Stressed-Out, Digitally Dependent Culture May Be Just a Matter of Thinking Differently". http://time.com/1556/the-mindful-revolution/.
- ↑ Komaroff, Anthony (March 31, 2014). "Does "mindfulness meditation" really help relieve stress and anxiety?". Ask Doctor K. Harvard Health Publications. http://www.askdoctork.com/mindfulness-meditation-really-help-relieve-stress-anxiety-201403316226. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- ↑ Khoury, B.; Lecomte, T.; Fortin, G., et al. (August 2013). "Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis". 763–71. Template:Citation/identifier. Template:Citation/identifier.
- ↑ f.e Hofmann, S. G.; Sawyer, A. T.; Witt, A. A.; Oh, D. (2010). "The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. (Full text)". Template:Citation/identifier. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848393/.
- ↑ Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (Wikipedia:Centre for Reviews and Dissemination), 29 November 2013, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?ID=12013035995
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Template:Cite pmid (Full text PDF, 439 pp, 12MB)
- ↑ Teasdale, John D. (1999). "Metacognition, Mindfulness and the Modification of Mood Disorders". Psychiatric journal (PDF). Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. pp. 10. http://www.mbcttrainingen.nl/Resources/Metacognition_mindfulness_m.pdf. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- ↑ Zeidan, F.; Grant, J.A.; Brown, C.A.; McHaffie, J.G.; Coghill, R.C. (June 2012). "Mindfulness meditation-related pain relief: Evidence for unique brain mechanisms in the regulation of pain". 165–173. Template:Citation/identifier. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394012004806.
- ↑ Jensen, Mark P.; Day, Melissa A.; Miró, Jordi (18 February 2014). "Neuromodulatory treatments for chronic pain: efficacy and mechanisms". 167–178. Template:Citation/identifier. http://www.nature.com/nrneurol/journal/v10/n3/full/nrneurol.2014.12.html.
- ↑ Malinowski, Peter (2013). "Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation". Template:Citation/identifier. http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnins.2013.00008/full.
- Didonna, Fabrizio (2008), Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness, Springer Science & Business Media
- Germer, Christopher K. (2005), Mindfulness. What Is It? What does It Matter? In: Christopher K. Germer, Ronald D. Siegel, Paul R. Fulton, "Mindfulness and Psychotherapy", Guilford Press
- Kristeller, Jean L. (2007), Mindfulness Meditation. In: Paul M. Lehrer, Robert L. Woolfolk, Wesley E. Sime (eds.), "Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition", Guilford Press