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Phantom time hypothesis

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The phantom time hypothesis is a revisionist history and Wikipedia:conspiracy theory developed in the 1980s and '90s by German Wikipedia:historian and Wikipedia:publisher Heribert Illig (born 1947 in Wikipedia:Vohenstrauß, Germany). The hypothesis proposes that periods of history, specifically that of Europe during the Wikipedia:Early Middle Ages (AD 614–911), are either wrongly dated, or did not occur at all, and that there has been a systematic effort to cover up that fact. Illig believed that this was achieved through the alteration, misrepresentation, and forgery of documentary and physical evidence.[1]

Arguments for the hypothesisEdit

The basis of Illig's hypothesis include:[2][3]

  • The scarcity of archaeological evidence that can be reliably dated to the period AD 614–911, on perceived inadequacies of radiometric and dendrochronological methods of dating this period, and on the over-reliance of medieval historians on written sources.
  • The presence of Wikipedia:Romanesque architecture in tenth-century Western Europe. This is taken as evidence that less than half a millennium could have passed since the fall of the Roman Empire, and concludes that the entire Wikipedia:Carolingian period, including the existence of the individual known as Wikipedia:Charlemagne, is a forgery by medieval chroniclers; or more precisely, a conspiracy instigated by Wikipedia:Otto III and Wikipedia:Gerbert d'Aurillac.
  • The relation between the Wikipedia:Julian calendar, Wikipedia:Gregorian calendar and the underlying astronomical solar or tropical year. The Julian calendar, introduced by Wikipedia:Julius Caesar, was long known to introduce a discrepancy from the tropical year of around one day for each century that the calendar was in use. By the time the Gregorian calendar was introduced in AD 1582, Illig alleges that the old Julian calendar "should" have produced a discrepancy of thirteen days between it and the real (or tropical) calendar. Instead, the astronomers and mathematicians working for Pope Gregory had found that the civil calendar needed to be adjusted by only ten days. From this, Illig concludes that the AD era had counted roughly three centuries which never existed.

Arguments against the hypothesisEdit

  • Regarding the Gregorian reform: It was never intended or purported to bring the calendar in line with the Julian calendar as it had existed in 45 BC, the time of its institution, but as it had existed in 325, the time of the Council of Nicaea, which had established a method for determining the date of Wikipedia:Easter Sunday by fixing the Wikipedia:Vernal Equinox on March 20 in the Julian calendar. By 1582, the astronomical equinox was occurring on March 10 in the Julian calendar, but Easter was still being calculated from a nominal equinox on March 20. In 45 BC the astronomical vernal equinox took place around March 23rd. Illig's "three missing centuries" thus correspond to the 369 years between the institution of the Julian calendar in 45 BC, and the fixing of the Easter Date at the Council of Nicaea in AD 325.[7]

See alsoEdit


  1. Fomenko, Anatoly (2007). "History: Chronology 1: Second Edition". Mithec. Template:Citation/identifier. 
  2. Illig, Heribert (2000). "Wer hat an der Uhr gedreht? (ISBN 3548750648)". Econ Verlag. 
  3. Illig, Heribert. "Das erfundene Mittelalter (ISBN 3548364292)". 
  4. Dieter Herrmann. "Nochmals: Gab es eine Phantomzeit in unserer Geschichte?". 
  5. Dutch, Stephen. "Is a Chunk of History Missing?". Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  6. Amalie Fößel. "Karl der Fiktive?". 
  7. Karl Mütz: Die „Phantomzeit“ 614 bis 911 von Heribert Illig. Kalendertechnische und kalenderhistorische Einwände. In: Zeitschrift für Württembergische Landesgeschichte. Band 60, 2001, S. 11-23.



  • Illig, Heribert: Enthält das frühe Mittelalter erfundene Zeit? and subsequent discussion, in: Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften 8 (1997), pp. 481–520.
  • Schieffer, Rudolf: Ein Mittelalter ohne Karl den Großen, oder: Die Antworten sind jetzt einfach, in: Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 48 (1997), pp. 611–617.
  • Matthiesen, Stephan: Erfundenes Mittelalter - fruchtlose These!, in: Skeptiker 2 (2002).

By IlligEdit

  • Wikipedia:Egon Friedell und Wikipedia:Immanuel Velikovsky. Vom Weltbild zweier Außenseiter, Basel 1985.
  • Die veraltete Vorzeit, Heribert Illig, Eichborn, 1988
  • with Gunnar Heinsohn: Wann lebten die Pharaonen?, Mantis, 1990, revised 2003 ISBN 3-928852-26-4
  • Karl der Fiktive, genannt Karl der Große, 1992
  • Hat Karl der Große je gelebt? Bauten, Funde und Schriften im Widerstreit, 1994
  • Hat Karl der Große je gelebt?, Heribert Illig, Mantis, 1996
  • Das erfundene Mittelalter. Die größte Zeitfälschung der Geschichte, Heribert Illig, Econ 1996, ISBN 3-430-14953-3 (revised ed. 1998)
  • Das Friedell-Lesebuch, Heribert Illig, C.H. Beck 1998, ISBN 3-406-32415-0
  • Heribert Illig, with Franz Löhner: Der Bau der Cheopspyramide, Mantis 1998, ISBN 3-928852-17-5
  • Wer hat an der Uhr gedreht?, Heribert Illig, Ullstein 2003, ISBN 3-548-36476-4
  • Heribert Illig, with Gerhard Anwander: Bayern in der Phantomzeit. Archäologie widerlegt Urkunden des frühen Mittelalters., Mantis 2002, ISBN 3-928852-21-3

External linksEdit


Wikipedia:Category:Historical revisionism Wikipedia:Category:Carolingian period Wikipedia:Category:Pseudohistory Wikipedia:Category:Historiography Wikipedia:Category:Conspiracy theories Wikipedia:Category:1991 introductions

Wikipedia:Category:Historiography Wikipedia:Category:Historical revisionism Wikipedia:Category:Pseudo-scholarship

Revisionism Wikipedia:Category:Theories of history Wikipedia:Category:Historical controversies Wikipedia:Category:Cultural politics

Wikipedia:et:Heribert Illig

et:Heribert Illig

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