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Renewable energy commercialization
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Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of Wikipedia:renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years. A fourth generation has yet to receive commercial attention. First-generation technologies, which are already mature and economically competitive, include Wikipedia:biomass, Wikipedia:hydroelectricity, Wikipedia:geothermal power and heat. Second-generation technologies are market-ready and are being deployed at the present time; they include Wikipedia:solar heating, Wikipedia:photovoltaics, Wikipedia:wind power, solar thermal power stations, and modern forms of Wikipedia:bioenergy. Third-generation technologies require continued Wikipedia:R&D efforts in order to make large contributions on a global scale and include advanced Wikipedia:biomass gasification, Wikipedia:hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and Wikipedia:ocean energy. As of 2014, renewable energy accounts for about half of new nameplate electrical capacity installed and costs are continuing to fall. The fourth generation includes such developing technologies as kinetic and Thermoelectric generation sheet
Wikipedia:Public policy and political leadership helps to "level the playing field" and drive the wider acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Countries such as Germany, Denmark, and Spain have led the way in implementing innovative policies which has driven most of the growth over the past decade. As of 2014, Germany has a commitment to the "Wikipedia:Energiewende" transition to a sustainable energy economy, and Denmark has a commitment to Wikipedia:100% renewable energy by 2050. There are now 144 countries with renewable energy policy targets.
Total investment in renewable energy reached $244 billion in 2012. The top countries for investment in recent years were China, Germany, Spain, the United States, Italy, and Brazil. Leading renewable energy companies include Wikipedia:BrightSource Energy, Wikipedia:First Solar, Gamesa, Wikipedia:GE Energy, Wikipedia:Goldwind, Wikipedia:Sinovel, Wikipedia:Suntech, Wikipedia:Trina Solar, Wikipedia:Vestas and Wikipedia:Yingli.
Climate change concerns are driving increasing growth in the renewable energy industries. According to a 2011 projection by the (IEA) Wikipedia:International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world's electricity within 50 years, dramatically reducing harmful greenhouse gas emissions.
Economic analysts expect market gains for Wikipedia:renewable energy (and Wikipedia:efficient energy use) following the Wikipedia:2011 Japanese nuclear accidents. In his 2012 Wikipedia:State of the Union address, President Barack Obama restated his commitment to renewable energy and mentioned the long-standing Interior Department commitment to permit 10,000 MW of renewable energy projects on public land in 2012. Globally, there are an estimated 3 million direct jobs in renewable energy industries, with about half of them in the biofuels industry.
thumb|Global New Investments in Renewable Energy'"`UNIQ2afcc438361095bd-nowiki-0000003D-QINU`"'20'"`UNIQ2afcc438361095bd-nowiki-0000003E-QINU`"' [[Wikipedia:File:12-05-08 AS1.JPG|thumb|right|The 150 MW Wikipedia:Andasol solar power station is a commercial Wikipedia:parabolic trough Wikipedia:solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity even when the sun isn't shining.]]
Rationale for renewables Edit
[[Wikipedia:File:Global public support for energy sources (Ipsos 2011).png|thumb|350px|right|alt=refer to caption and image description|Global public support for energy sources, based on a survey by Wikipedia:Ipsos (2011).]]
Wikipedia:Climate change, Wikipedia:pollution, and energy insecurity are significant problems and addressing them requires major changes to energy infrastructures. Wikipedia:Renewable energy technologies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio, as they contribute to world energy security, reduce dependency on Wikipedia:fossil fuels, and provide opportunities for mitigating Wikipedia:greenhouse gases. Climate-disrupting Wikipedia:fossil fuels are being replaced by clean, climate-stabilizing, non-depletable sources of energy:
...the transition from coal, oil, and gas to wind, solar, and geothermal energy is well under way. In the old economy, energy was produced by burning something — oil, coal, or natural gas — leading to the carbon emissions that have come to define our economy. The new energy economy harnesses the energy in wind, the energy coming from the sun, and heat from within the earth itself.
In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for a variety of methods for addressing the problem of energy supply. These methods include promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power, requiring utilities to use more renewable energy, and providing tax incentives to encourage the development and use of such technologies. It is expected that renewable energy investments will pay off economically in the long term.
EU member countries have shown support for ambitious renewable energy goals. In 2010, Wikipedia:Eurobarometer polled the twenty-seven EU member states about the target "to increase the share of renewable energy in the EU by 20 percent by 2020". Most people in all twenty-seven countries either approved of the target or called for it to go further. Across the EU, 57 percent thought the proposed goal was "about right" and 16 percent thought it was "too modest." Just 19 percent said it was "too ambitious".
As of 2011, new evidence has emerged that there are considerable risks associated with traditional energy sources, and that major changes to the mix of energy technologies is needed:
Several mining tragedies globally have underscored the human toll of the coal supply chain. New EPA initiatives targeting air toxics, coal ash, and effluent releases highlight the environmental impacts of coal and the cost of addressing them with control technologies. The use of fracking in natural gas exploration is coming under scrutiny, with evidence of groundwater contamination and greenhouse gas emissions. Concerns are increasing about the vast amounts of water used at coal-fired and nuclear power plants, particularly in regions of the country facing water shortages. Events at the Fukushima nuclear plant have renewed doubts about the ability to operate large numbers of nuclear plants safely over the long term. Further, cost estimates for “next generation” nuclear units continue to climb, and lenders are unwilling to finance these plants without taxpayer guarantees.
The 2014 Wikipedia:REN21 Global Status Report says that renewable energies are no longer just energy sources, but ways to address pressing social, political, economic and environmental problems:
Today, renewables are seen not only as sources of energy, but also as tools to address many other pressing needs, including: improving energy security; reducing the health and environmental impacts associated with fossil and nuclear energy; mitigating greenhouse gas emissions; improving educational opportunities; creating jobs; reducing poverty; and increasing gender equality... Renewables have entered the mainstream.
Growth of renewablesEdit
Renewable energy sources were estimated 16.7% of global final energy consumption in 2010. By the end of 2011, total renewable power capacity worldwide exceeded 1,360 GW, up 8%. Of this total, modern renewable energy accounted for an estimated 8.2%, while the share from traditional biomass has declined slightly to an estimated 8.5%. In the power renewables accounted for almost half of the 208 GW of capacity added globally during 2011. Wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) accounted for almost 40% and 30% .
During the five-years from the end of 2004 through 2009, worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10–60 percent annually for many technologies. In 2011, UN under-secretary general Wikipedia:Achim Steiner said: "The continuing growth in this core segment of the Wikipedia:green economy is not happening by chance. The combination of government target-setting, policy support and stimulus funds is underpinning the renewable industry's rise and bringing the much needed transformation of our global energy system within reach." He added: "Renewable energies are expanding both in terms of investment, projects and geographical spread. In doing so, they are making an increasing contribution to combating climate change, countering energy poverty and energy insecurity".
In 2008 for the first time, more renewable energy than conventional power capacity was added in both the European Union and United States, demonstrating a "fundamental transition" of the world's energy markets towards renewables, according to a report released by Wikipedia:REN21, a global renewable energy policy network based in Paris. In 2010, renewable power consisted about a third of the newly built power generation capacities.
According to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power plants may produce most of the world's electricity within 50 years, significantly reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. The IEA has said: "Photovoltaic and solar-thermal plants may meet most of the world's demand for electricity by 2060 -- and half of all energy needs -- with wind, hydropower and biomass plants supplying much of the remaining generation". "Photovoltaic and concentrated solar power together can become the major source of electricity".
|Selected global indicators||2004||2005||2006||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013|
|Investment in new renewable capacity (annual)||30||38||63||104||130||160||211||257||244||214 billion USD|
|Existing renewables power capacity, including large-scale hydro||895||930||1,020||1,070||1,140||1,230||1,320||1,360||1,470||1,560 GWe|
|Existing renewables power capacity, excluding large hydro||200||250||312||390||480||560 GWe|
|Hydropower capacity (existing)||915||945||970||990||1,000 GWe|
|Wind power capacity (existing)||48||59||74||94||121||159||198||238||283||318 GWe|
|Solar PV capacity (grid-connected)||7.6||16||23||40||70||100||139 GWe|
|Solar hot water capacity (existing)||77||88||105||120||130||160||185||232||255||326 GWth|
|Ethanol production (annual)||30.5||33||39||50||67||76||86||86||83||87 billion liters|
|Biodiesel production (annual)||12||17||19||21||22||26 billion liters|
|Countries with policy targets for renewable energy use||45||49||68||79||89||98||118||138||144|
|Year||Hydro||Geothermal||Waste||Wood||CSP||Utility PV||Rooftop PV||Onshore Wind||Offshore Wind|| Renewable|
[[Wikipedia:File:US projected cost of wind power.png|thumb|The Wikipedia:National Renewable Energy Laboratory projects that the levelized cost of wind power will decline about 25% from 2012 to 2030.]]
Renewable energy technologies are getting cheaper, through technological change and through the benefits of mass production and market competition. A 2011 IEA report said: "A portfolio of renewable energy technologies is becoming cost-competitive in an increasingly broad range of circumstances, in some cases providing investment opportunities without the need for specific economic support," and added that "cost reductions in critical technologies, such as wind and solar, are set to continue." As of 2011[update]Template:DMCA, there have been substantial reductions in the cost of solar and wind technologies:
The price of PV modules per MW has fallen by 60 percent since the summer of 2008, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance estimates, putting solar power for the first time on a competitive footing with the retail price of electricity in a number of sunny countries. Wind turbine prices have also fallen - by 18 percent per MW in the last two years - reflecting, as with solar, fierce competition in the supply chain. Further improvements in the levelised cost of energy for solar, wind and other technologies lie ahead, posing a growing threat to the dominance of fossil fuel generation sources in the next few years.
Hydro-electricity and geothermal electricity produced at favourable sites are now the cheapest way to generate electricity. Renewable energy costs continue to drop, and the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) is declining for wind power, solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and some biomass technologies.
Renewable energy is also the most economic solution for new grid-connected capacity in areas with good resources. As the cost of renewable power falls, the scope of economically viable applications increases. Renewable technologies are now often the most economic solution for new generating capacity. Where “oil-fired generation is the predominant power generation source (e.g. on islands, off-grid and in some countries) a lower-cost renewable solution almost always exists today”. As of 2012, renewable power generation technologies accounted for around half of all new power generation capacity additions globally. In 2011, additions included 41 Wikipedia:gigawatt (GW) of new wind power capacity, 30 GW of PV, 25 GW of hydro-electricity, 6 GW of biomass, 0.5 GW of CSP, and 0.1 GW of geothermal power.
Three generations of technologies Edit
Renewable energy includes a number of sources and technologies at different stages of commercialization. The Wikipedia:International Energy Agency (IEA) has defined three generations of renewable energy technologies, reaching back over 100 years:
- "First-generation technologies emerged from the Wikipedia:industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include Wikipedia:hydropower, Wikipedia:biomass Wikipedia:combustion, Wikipedia:geothermal power and heat. These technologies are quite widely used.
- Second-generation technologies include Wikipedia:solar heating and cooling, Wikipedia:wind power, modern forms of Wikipedia:bioenergy, and Wikipedia:solar photovoltaics. These are now entering markets as a result of research, development and demonstration (RD&D) investments since the 1980s. Initial investment was prompted by Wikipedia:energy security concerns linked to the oil crises of the 1970s but the enduring appeal of these technologies is due, at least in part, to environmental benefits. Many of the technologies reflect significant advancements in materials.
- Third-generation technologies are still under development and include advanced Wikipedia:biomass gasification, Wikipedia:biorefinery technologies, concentrating Wikipedia:solar thermal power, Wikipedia:hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and Wikipedia:ocean energy. Advances in Wikipedia:nanotechnology may also play a major role". First-generation technologies are well established, second-generation technologies are entering markets, and third-generation technologies heavily depend on long-term research and development commitments, where the public sector has a role to play.
First-generation technologies Edit
First-generation technologies are widely used in locations with abundant resources. Their future use depends on the exploration of the remaining resource potential, particularly in developing countries, and on overcoming challenges related to the environment and social acceptance.
Wikipedia:Biomass for heat and power is a fully Wikipedia:mature technology which offers a ready disposal mechanism for municipal, agricultural, and industrial organic wastes. However, the industry has remained relatively stagnant over the decade to 2007, even though demand for biomass (mostly wood) continues to grow in many developing countries. One of the problems of biomass is that material directly combusted in cook stoves produces pollutants, leading to severe health and environmental consequences, although improved cook stove programmes are alleviating some of these effects. First-generation biomass technologies can be economically competitive, but may still require deployment support to overcome public acceptance and small-scale issues.
[[Wikipedia:File:ThreeGorgesDam-China2009.jpg|thumb| The 22,500 MW Wikipedia:Three Gorges Dam in the Wikipedia:Peoples Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.]] Wikipedia:Hydroelectricity is the term referring to Wikipedia:electricity generated by Wikipedia:hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of Wikipedia:renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Wikipedia:Hydroelectric plants have the advantage of being long-lived and many existing plants have operated for more than 100 years.
Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Wikipedia:Three Gorges Dam in China, Wikipedia:Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Wikipedia:Guri Dam in Venezuela. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.
Geothermal power and heat Edit
[[Wikipedia:Image:West Ford Flat Geothermal Cooling Tower.JPG|thumb|right|West Ford Flat Geothermal Cooling Tower.JPG|thumb|One of many power plants at Wikipedia:The Geysers, a geothermal power field in northern California, with a total output of over 750 MW]]
Wikipedia:Geothermal power plants can operate 24 hours per day, providing Wikipedia:baseload capacity. Estimates for the world potential capacity for geothermal power generation vary widely, ranging from 40 GW by 2020 to as much as 6,000 GW.
Geothermal power capacity grew from around 1 GW in 1975 to almost 10 GW in 2008. The United States is the world leader in terms of installed capacity, representing 3.1 GW. Other countries with significant installed capacity include the Philippines (1.9 GW), Indonesia (1.2 GW), Mexico (1.0 GW), Italy (0.8 GW), Iceland (0.6 GW), Japan (0.5 GW), and New Zealand (0.5 GW). In some countries, geothermal power accounts for a significant share of the total electricity supply, such as in the Philippines, where geothermal represented 17 percent of the total power mix at the end of 2008.
Geothermal (ground source) heat pumps represented an estimated 30 GWth of installed capacity at the end of 2008, with other direct uses of geothermal heat (i.e., for space heating, agricultural drying and other uses) reaching an estimated 15 GWth. As of 2008[update]Template:DMCA, at least 76 countries use direct geothermal energy in some form.
Second-generation technologies Edit
Markets for second-generation technologies have been strong and growing over the past decade, and these technologies have gone from being a passion for the dedicated few to a major economic sector in countries such as Germany, Spain, the United States, and Japan. Many large industrial companies and financial institutions are involved and the challenge is to broaden the market base for continued growth worldwide.
Solar Heating Edit
[[Wikipedia:Image:Solar heater dsc00632.jpg|thumb|Solar energy technologies, such as Wikipedia:solar water heaters, located on or near the buildings which they supply with energy, are a prime example of a Wikipedia:soft energy technology.]] Template:See also
Wikipedia:Solar heating systems are a well known second-generation technology and generally consist of Wikipedia:solar thermal collectors, a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage, and a reservoir or tank for heat storage. The systems may be used to heat domestic hot water, swimming pools, or homes and businesses. The heat can also be used for industrial process applications or as an energy input for other uses such as cooling equipment.
In many warmer climates, a solar heating system can provide a very high percentage (50 to 75%) of domestic hot water energy. As of 2009[update]Template:DMCA, China has 27 million rooftop solar water heaters.
[[Wikipedia:Image:Nellis AFB Solar panels.jpg|thumb|Wikipedia:Nellis Solar Power Plant at Nellis Air Force Base. These panels track the sun in one axis.]]
- Main article: Photovoltaics
[[Wikipedia:File:Solar-crop.jpg|thumb|President Wikipedia:Barack Obama speaks at the Wikipedia:DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center.]]
Photovoltaic (PV) cells, also called Wikipedia:solar cells, convert light into electricity. In the 1980s and early 1990s, most photovoltaic modules were used to provide Wikipedia:remote-area power supply, but from around 1995, industry efforts have focused increasingly on developing Wikipedia:building integrated photovoltaics and Wikipedia:photovoltaic power stations for grid connected applications.
Many solar Wikipedia:photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. As of July 2012, the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Wikipedia:Agua Caliente Solar Project (USA, 247 MW), Wikipedia:Charanka Solar Park (India, 214 MW), Wikipedia:Golmud Solar Park (China, 200 MW), Wikipedia:Perovo Solar Park (Ukraine 100 MW), Wikipedia:Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada, 97 MW), Wikipedia:Brandenburg-Briest Solarpark (Germany 91 MW), Wikipedia:Solarpark Finow Tower (Germany 84.7 MW), Wikipedia:Montalto di Castro Photovoltaic Power Station (Italy, 84.2 MW), Wikipedia:Eggebek Solar Park (Germany 83.6 MW), Wikipedia:Senftenberg Solarpark (Germany 82 MW), Wikipedia:Finsterwalde Solar Park (Germany, 80.7 MW), Wikipedia:Okhotnykovo Solar Park (Ukraine, 80 MW), Wikipedia:Lopburi Solar Farm (Thailand 73.16 MW), Wikipedia:Rovigo Photovoltaic Power Plant (Italy, 72 MW), and the Wikipedia:Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany, 71.8 MW).
There are also many large plants under construction. The Wikipedia:Desert Sunlight Solar Farm under construction in Wikipedia:Riverside County, California and Wikipedia:Topaz Solar Farm being built in Wikipedia:San Luis Obispo County, California are both 550 MW Wikipedia:solar parks that will use thin-film solar Wikipedia:photovoltaic modules made by Wikipedia:First Solar. The Wikipedia:Blythe Solar Power Project is a 500 MW photovoltaic station under construction in Wikipedia:Riverside County, California. The Wikipedia:California Valley Solar Ranch (CVSR) is a 250 Wikipedia:megawatt (MW) Wikipedia:solar photovoltaic Wikipedia:power plant, which is being built by Wikipedia:SunPower in the Wikipedia:Carrizo Plain, northeast of California Valley. The 230 MW Antelope Valley Solar Ranch is a Wikipedia:First Solar photovoltaic project which is under construction in the Antelope Valley area of the Western Mojave Desert, and due to be completed in 2013. The Wikipedia:Mesquite Solar project is a photovoltaic solar power plant being built in Arlington, Maricopa County, Wikipedia:Arizona, owned by Wikipedia:Sempra Generation. Phase 1 will have a Wikipedia:nameplate capacity of 150 Wikipedia:megawatts.
Many of these plants are integrated with agriculture and some use innovative tracking systems that follow the sun's daily path across the sky to generate more electricity than conventional fixed-mounted systems. There are no fuel costs or emissions during operation of the power stations.
Wind power Edit
thumb|right|Wind power: worldwide installed capacity'"`UNIQ2afcc438361095bd-nowiki-000000E5-QINU`"'56'"`UNIQ2afcc438361095bd-nowiki-000000E6-QINU`"' thumb|right|Landowners in the US typically receive $3,000 to $5,000 per year in rental income from each wind turbine, while farmers continue to grow crops or graze cattle up to the foot of the turbines.'"`UNIQ2afcc438361095bd-nowiki-000000E8-QINU`"'57'"`UNIQ2afcc438361095bd-nowiki-000000E9-QINU`"'
Some of the second-generation renewables, such as wind power, have high potential and have already realised relatively low production costs. Global wind power installations increased by 35,800 MW in 2010, bringing total installed capacity up to 194,400 MW, a 22.5% increase on the 158,700 MW installed at the end of 2009. The increase for 2010 represents investments totalling €47.3 billion (US$65 billion) and for the first time more than half of all new wind power was added outside of the traditional markets of Europe and North America, mainly driven, by the continuing boom in China which accounted for nearly half of all of the installations at 16,500 MW. China now has 42,300 MW of wind power installed. Wind power accounts for approximately 19% of electricity generated in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland. These are some of the largest wind farms in the world, as of 2012:
|Wind farm|| Current|
|Alta (Oak Creek-Mojave)||1,320||Template:Flagu|||
|Wikipedia:Jaisalmer Wind Park||1,064||Template:Flagu|||
|Wikipedia:Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm||662.5||Template:Flagu|||
|Wikipedia:Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm||600||Template:Flagu|||
|Wikipedia:Fowler Ridge Wind Farm||599.8||Template:Flagu|||
|Wikipedia:Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center||735.5||Template:Flagu|||
|Wikipedia:Roscoe Wind Farm||781.5||Template:Flagu|||
As of 2014, the wind industry in the USA is able to produce more power at lower cost by using taller wind turbines with longer blades, capturing the faster winds at higher elevations. This has opened up new opportunities and in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio, the price of power from wind turbines built 300 feet to 400 feet above the ground can now compete with conventional fossil fuels like coal. Prices have fallen to about 4 cents per kilowatt-hour in some cases and utilities have been increasing the amount of wind energy in their portfolio, saying it is their cheapest option.
Solar thermal power stations Edit
Wikipedia:Solar thermal power stations include the 354 Wikipedia:megawatt (MW) Wikipedia:Solar Energy Generating Systems power plant in the USA, Wikipedia:Solnova Solar Power Station (Spain, 150 MW), Wikipedia:Andasol solar power station (Spain, 100 MW), Wikipedia:Nevada Solar One (USA, 64 MW), Wikipedia:PS20 solar power tower (Spain, 20 MW), and the Wikipedia:PS10 solar power tower (Spain, 11 MW). The 370 MW Wikipedia:Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, located in California's Wikipedia:Mojave Desert, is the world's largest solar-thermal power plant project currently under construction. Many other plants are under construction or planned, mainly in Spain and the USA. In developing countries, three Wikipedia:World Bank projects for integrated solar thermal/combined-cycle gas-turbine power plants in Wikipedia:Egypt, Wikipedia:Mexico, and Wikipedia:Morocco have been approved.
Modern forms of Bioenergy Edit
Template:See also [[Wikipedia:File:Sao Paulo ethanol pump 04 2008 74 zoom.jpg|thumb|left|Neat ethanol on the left (A), Wikipedia:gasoline on the right (G) at a Wikipedia:filling station in Wikipedia:Brazil.]]
Global Wikipedia:ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion litres, while Wikipedia:biodiesel expanded more than tenfold from less than 1 billion to almost 11 billion litres. Biofuels provide 1.8% of the world's transport fuel and recent estimates indicate a continued high growth. The main producing countries for transport biofuels are the USA, Brazil, and the EU.
Wikipedia:Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of Wikipedia:ethanol fuel from Wikipedia:sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel. As a result of this and the exploitation of domestic deep water oil sources, Brazil, which for years had to import a large share of the petroleum needed for domestic consumption, recently reached complete self-sufficiency in liquid fuels.
Nearly all the gasoline sold in the United States today is mixed with 10 percent ethanol, a mix known as E10, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. Ford, Wikipedia:DaimlerChrysler, and GM are among the automobile companies that sell Wikipedia:flexible-fuel cars, trucks, and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). The challenge is to expand the market for biofuels beyond the farm states where they have been most popular to date. The Wikipedia:Energy Policy Act of 2005, which calls for Template:Convert of biofuels to be used annually by 2012, will also help to expand the market.
The growing ethanol and biodiesel industries are providing jobs in plant construction, operations, and maintenance, mostly in rural communities. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, "the ethanol industry created almost 154,000 U.S. jobs in 2005 alone, boosting household income by $5.7 billion. It also contributed about $3.5 billion in tax revenues at the local, state, and federal levels".
Third-generation technologies Edit
Third-generation renewable energy technologies are still under development and include advanced Wikipedia:biomass gasification, Wikipedia:biorefinery technologies, Wikipedia:hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and Wikipedia:ocean energy. Third-generation technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or have limited commercialization. Many are on the horizon and may have potential comparable to other renewable energy technologies, but still depend on attracting sufficient attention and research and development funding.
New bioenergy technologies Edit
|Wikipedia:Abengoa Bioenergy||Hugoton, KS||Wheat straw|
|Wikipedia:BlueFire Ethanol||Irvine, CA||Multiple sources|
|Wikipedia:Gulf Coast Energy||Mossy Head, FL||Wood waste|
|Wikipedia:POET LLC||Emmetsburg, IA||Corn cobs|
|Wikipedia:SunOpta||Little Falls, MN||Wood chips|
|Wikipedia:Xethanol||Auburndale, FL||Citrus peels|
|Note: plants are either operational or under construction|
According to the International Energy Agency, Wikipedia:cellulosic ethanol biorefineries could allow biofuels to play a much bigger role in the future than organizations such as the IEA previously thought. Cellulosic ethanol can be made from plant matter composed primarily of inedible cellulose fibers that form the stems and branches of most plants. Crop residues (such as corn stalks, wheat straw and rice straw), wood waste, and Wikipedia:municipal solid waste are potential sources of cellulosic biomass. Dedicated energy crops, such as switchgrass, are also promising cellulose sources that can be sustainably produced in many regions.
Ocean energy Edit
Wikipedia:Ocean energy is all forms of renewable energy derived from the sea including wave energy, tidal energy, river current, ocean current energy, offshore wind, salinity gradient energy and ocean thermal gradient energy.
The Wikipedia:Rance Tidal Power Station (240 MW) is the world's first tidal power station. The facility is located on the estuary of the Wikipedia:Rance River, in Wikipedia:Brittany, Wikipedia:France. Opened on the 26th November 1966, it is currently operated by Wikipedia:Électricité de France, and is the largest tidal power station in the world, in terms of installed capacity.
First proposed more than thirty years ago, systems to harvest utility-scale electrical power from ocean waves have recently been gaining momentum as a viable technology. The potential for this technology is considered promising, especially on west-facing coasts with latitudes between 40 and 60 degrees:
In the United Kingdom, for example, the Carbon Trust recently estimated the extent of the economically viable offshore resource at 55 TWh per year, about 14% of current national demand. Across Europe, the technologically achievable resource has been estimated to be at least 280 TWh per year. In 2003, the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) estimated the viable resource in the United States at 255 TWh per year (6% of demand).There are currently nine projects, completed or in-development, off the coasts of the Wikipedia:United Kingdom, Wikipedia:United States, Wikipedia:Spain and Wikipedia:Australia to harness the rise and fall of waves by Wikipedia:Ocean Power Technologies. The current maximum power output is 1.5 MW (Wikipedia:Reedsport, Oregon), with development underway for 100 MW (Wikipedia:Coos Bay, Oregon).
Enhanced geothermal systems Edit
As of 2008[update]Template:DMCA, geothermal power development was under way in more than 40 countries, partially attributable to the development of new technologies, such as Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The development of Wikipedia:binary cycle power plants and improvements in drilling and extraction technology may enable Wikipedia:enhanced geothermal systems over a much greater geographical range than "traditional" Geothermal systems. Demonstration EGS projects are operational in the USA, Australia, Germany, France, and The United Kingdom.
Renewable energy industry Edit
Total investment in renewable energy reached $211 billion in 2010, up from $160 billion in 2009. The top countries for investment in 2010 were China, Germany, the United States, Italy, and Brazil. Continued growth for the renewable energy sector is expected and promotional policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors.
Wind power companies Edit
As of 2010[update]Template:DMCA, Wikipedia:Vestas (from Denmark) is the world's top wind turbine manufacturer in terms of percentage of market volume, and Wikipedia:Sinovel (from China) is in second place. Together Vestas and Sinovel delivered 10,228 MW of new wind power capacity in 2010, and their market share was 25.9 percent. Wikipedia:GE Energy (USA) was in third place, closely followed by Wikipedia:Goldwind, another Chinese supplier. German Wikipedia:Enercon ranks fifth in the world, and is followed in sixth place by Indian-based Wikipedia:Suzlon.
Photovoltaic companies Edit
Template:See also The solar PV market has been growing for the past few years. According to solar PV research company, PVinsights, worldwide shipment of solar modules in 2011 was around 25 GW, and the shipment year over year growth was around 40%. The top 5 solar module players in 2011 in turns are Suntech, First Solar, Yingli, Trina, and Canadian. The top 5 solar module companies possessed 51.3% market share of solar modules, according to PVinsights' market intelligence report.
| Solar Module |
|2||5.7%||Wikipedia:First Solar||2||7.9%||Template:Flagicon USA|
|3||4.8%||Wikipedia:Yingli Solar||4||6.4%||Template:Flagicon China|
|4||4.3%||Wikipedia:Trina Solar||5||6.1%||Template:Flagicon China|
|5||4.0%||Wikipedia:Sungen Solar||6||5.3%||Template:Flagicon China|
|8||2.7%||Wikipedia:Hanwha Solarone||7||||Template:Flagicon South Korea|
The PV industry has seen dramatic drops in module prices since 2008. In late 2011, factory-gate prices for crystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules dropped below the $1.00/W mark. The $1.00/W installed cost, is often regarded in the PV industry as marking the achievement of Wikipedia:grid parity for PV. These reductions have taken many stakeholders, including industry analysts, by surprise, and perceptions of current solar power economics often lags behind reality. Some stakeholders still have the perspective that solar PV remains too costly on an unsubsidized basis to compete with conventional generation options. Yet technological advancements, manufacturing process improvements, and industry re-structuring, mean that further price reductions are likely in coming years.
Non-technical barriers to acceptance Edit
Current energy markets, institutions, and policies have been developed to support the production and use of fossil fuels. Newer and cleaner technologies may offer social and environmental benefits, but utility operators often reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big, conventional power plants. Consumers often ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies), and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) may work against renewables. Wikipedia:Benjamin K. Sovacool has argued that "some of the most surreptitious, yet powerful, impediments facing renewable energy and energy efficiency in the United States are more about culture and institutions than engineering and science".
The obstacles to the widespread commercialization of renewable energy technologies are primarily political, not technical, and there have been many studies which have identified a range of "non-technical barriers" to renewable energy use. These barriers are impediments which put renewable energy at a marketing, institutional, or policy disadvantage relative to other forms of energy. Key barriers include:
- Difficulty overcoming established energy systems, which includes difficulty introducing innovative energy systems, particularly for Wikipedia:distributed generation such as photovoltaics, because of technological lock-in, electricity markets designed for centralized power plants, and market control by established operators. As the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change points out:
- National grids are usually tailored towards the operation of centralised power plants and thus favour their performance. Technologies that do not easily fit into these networks may struggle to enter the market, even if the technology itself is commercially viable. This applies to distributed generation as most grids are not suited to receive electricity from many small sources. Large-scale renewables may also encounter problems if they are sited in areas far from existing grids.
- Lack of government policy support, which includes the lack of policies and regulations supporting deployment of renewable energy technologies and the presence of policies and regulations hindering renewable energy development and supporting conventional energy development. Examples include subsidies for fossil-fuels, insufficient consumer-based renewable energy incentives, government underwriting for nuclear plant accidents, and complex zoning and permitting processes for renewable energy.
- Lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness.
- Higher capital cost of renewable energy technologies compared with conventional energy technologies.
- Inadequate financing options for renewable energy projects, including insufficient access to affordable financing for project developers, entrepreneurs and consumers.
- Imperfect capital markets, which includes failure to internalize all costs of conventional energy (e.g., effects of air pollution, risk of supply disruption) and failure to internalize all benefits of renewable energy (e.g., cleaner air, energy security).
- Inadequate workforce skills and training, which includes lack of adequate scientific, technical, and manufacturing skills required for renewable energy production; lack of reliable installation, maintenance, and inspection services; and failure of the educational system to provide adequate training in new technologies.
- Lack of adequate codes, standards, utility interconnection, and net-metering guidelines.
- Poor public perception of renewable energy system aesthetics.
- Lack of stakeholder/community participation and co-operation in energy choices and renewable energy projects.
With such a wide range of non-technical barriers, there is no "silver bullet" solution to drive the transition to renewable energy. So ideally there is a need for several different types of policy instruments to complement each other and overcome different types of barriers.
A policy framework must be created that will level the playing field and redress the imbalance of traditional approaches associated with fossil fuels. The policy landscape must keep pace with broad trends within the energy sector, as well as reflecting specific social, economic and environmental priorities.
Public policy landscape Edit
Public policy has a role to play in renewable energy commercialization because the free market system has some fundamental limitations. As the Wikipedia:Stern Review points out:
In a liberalised energy market, investors, operators and consumers should face the full cost of their decisions. But this is not the case in many economies or energy sectors. Many policies distort the market in favour of existing fossil fuel technologies.
The Wikipedia:International Solar Energy Society has stated that "historical incentives for the conventional energy resources continue even today to bias markets by burying many of the real societal costs of their use".
Fossil-fuel energy systems have different production, transmission, and end-use costs and characteristics than do renewable energy systems, and new promotional policies are needed to ensure that renewable systems develop as quickly and broadly as is socially desirable.
Wikipedia:Lester Brown states that the market "does not incorporate the indirect costs of providing goods or services into prices, it does not value nature's services adequately, and it does not respect the sustainable-yield thresholds of natural systems". It also favors the near term over the long term, thereby showing limited concern for future generations. Tax and subsidy shifting can help overcome these problems.
Shifting taxes Edit
Tax shifting has been widely discussed and endorsed by economists. It involves lowering income taxes while raising levies on environmentally destructive activities, in order to create a more responsive market. For example, a tax on coal that included the increased health care costs associated with breathing polluted air, the costs of acid rain damage, and the costs of climate disruption would encourage investment in renewable technologies. Several Western European countries are already shifting taxes in a process known there as environmental tax reform.
In 2001, Sweden launched a new 10-year environmental tax shift designed to convert 30 billion kroner ($3.9 billion) of income taxes to taxes on environmentally destructive activities. Other European countries with significant tax reform efforts are France, Italy, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Asia's two leading economies, Japan and China, are considering carbon taxes.
Shifting subsidies Edit
Template:See also Just as there is a need for tax shifting, there is also a need for subsidy shifting. Subsidies are not an inherently bad thing as many technologies and industries emerged through government subsidy schemes. The Stern Review explains that of 20 key innovations from the past 30 years, only one of the 14 was funded entirely by the private sector and nine were totally publicly funded. In terms of specific examples, the Internet was the result of publicly funded links among computers in government laboratories and research institutes. And the combination of the federal tax deduction and a robust state tax deduction in California helped to create the modern wind power industry.
Lester Brown has argued that "a world facing the prospect of economically disruptive climate change can no longer justify subsidies to expand the burning of coal and oil. Shifting these subsidies to the development of climate-benign energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal power is the key to stabilizing the earth's climate." The International Solar Energy Society advocates "leveling the playing field" by redressing the continuing inequities in public subsidies of energy technologies and R&D, in which the fossil fuel and nuclear power receive the largest share of financial support.
Some countries are eliminating or reducing climate disrupting subsidies and Belgium, France, and Japan have phased out all subsidies for coal. Germany is reducing its coal subsidy. The subsidy dropped from $5.4 billion in 1989 to $2.8 billion in 2002, and in the process Germany lowered its coal use by 46 percent. China cut its coal subsidy from $750 million in 1993 to $240 million in 1995 and more recently has imposed a high-sulfur coal tax. However, the United States has been increasing its support for the fossil fuel and nuclear industries.
In November 2011, an IEA report entitled Wikipedia:Deploying Renewables 2011 said "subsidies in green energy technologies that were not yet competitive are justified in order to give an incentive to investing into technologies with clear environmental and energy security benefits". The IEA's report disagreed with claims that renewable energy technologies are only viable through costly subsidies and not able to produce energy reliably to meet demand.
Renewable energy targets Edit
Setting national renewable energy targets can be an important part of a renewable energy policy and these targets are usually defined as a percentage of the primary energy and/or electricity generation mix. For example, the Wikipedia:European Union has prescribed an indicative renewable energy target of 12 per cent of the total EU Wikipedia:energy mix and 22 per cent of electricity consumption by 2010. National targets for individual EU Member States have also been set to meet the overall target. Other developed countries with defined national or regional targets include Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, and some US States.
National targets are also an important component of renewable energy strategies in some Wikipedia:developing countries. Developing countries with renewable energy targets include China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Brazil, Egypt, Mali, and South Africa. The targets set by many developing countries are quite modest when compared with those in some industrialized countries.
Renewable energy targets in most countries are indicative and nonbinding but they have assisted government actions and regulatory frameworks. The United Nations Environment Program has suggested that making renewable energy targets legally binding could be an important policy tool to achieve higher renewable energy market penetration.
Levelling the playing fieldEdit
The IEA has identified three actions which will allow renewable energy and other clean energy technologies to "more effectively compete for private sector capital".
- "First, energy prices must appropriately reflect the "true cost" of energy (e.g. through carbon pricing) so that the positive and negative impacts of energy production and consumption are fully taken into account". Example: New UK nuclear plants cost £92.50/MWh, whereas offshore wind farms in the UK are supported with €74.2/MWh at a price of £150 in 2011 falling to £130 per MWh in 2022. In Denmark, the price can be €84/MWh.
- "Second, inefficient fossil fuel subsidies must be removed, while ensuring that all citizens have access to affordable energy".
- "Third, governments must develop policy frameworks that encourage private sector investment in lower-carbon energy options".
Green stimulus programs Edit
In response to the global financial crisis in the late 2000s, the world's major governments made "green stimulus" programs one of their main policy instruments for supporting economic recovery. Some Template:US$ in green stimulus funding had been allocated to renewable energy and energy efficiency, to be spent mainly in 2010 and in 2011.
Energy Sector RegulationEdit
Public policy determines the extent to which renewable energy (RE) is to be incorporated into a developed or developing country’s generation mix. Energy sector regulators implement that policy—thus affecting the pace and pattern of RE investments and connections to the grid. Energy regulators often have authority to carry out a number of functions that have implications for the financial feasibility of renewable energy projects. Such functions include issuing licenses, setting performance standards, monitoring the performance of regulated firms, determining the price level and structure of tariffs, establishing uniform systems of accounts, arbitrating stakeholder disputes (like interconnection cost allocations), performing management audits, developing agency human resources (expertise), reporting sector and commission activities to government authorities, and coordinating decisions with other government agencies. Thus, regulators make a wide range of decisions that affect the financial outcomes associated with RE investments. In addition, the sector regulator is in a position to give advice to the government regarding the full implications of focusing on climate change or energy security. The energy sector regulator is the natural advocate for efficiency and cost-containment throughout the process of designing and implementing RE policies. Since policies are not self-implementing, energy sector regulators become a key facilitator (or blocker) of renewable energy investments.
Voluntary market mechanisms for renewable electricity Edit
Voluntary markets, also referred to as green power markets, are driven by consumer preference. Voluntary markets allow a consumer to choose to do more than policy decisions require and reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use. Voluntary green power products must offer a significant benefit and value to buyers to be successful. Benefits may include zero or reduced greenhouse gas emissions, other pollution reductions or other environmental improvements on power stations. 
The driving force behind voluntary green electricity within the EU are the liberalized electricity markets and the RES Directive. According to the directive the EU Member States must ensure that the origin of electricity produced from renewables can be guaranteed and therefore a “guarantee of origin” must be issued (article 15). Environmental organisations are using the voluntary market to create new renewables and improving sustainability of the existing power production. In the US the main tool to track and stimulate voluntary actions is Green-e program managed by Wikipedia:Center for Resource Solutions. In Europe the main voluntary tool used by the NGOs to promote sustainable electricity production is Wikipedia:EKOenergy label.
Recent developments Edit
A number of events in 2006 pushed renewable energy up the political agenda, including the US mid-term elections in November, which confirmed Wikipedia:clean energy as a mainstream issue. Also in 2006, the Stern Review made a strong economic case for investing in low carbon technologies now, and argued that economic growth need not be incompatible with cutting energy consumption. According to a trend analysis from the Wikipedia:United Nations Environment Programme, climate change concerns coupled with recent high oil prices and increasing government support are driving increasing rates of investment in the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries.
Investment capital flowing into renewable energy reached a record US$77 billion in 2007, with the upward trend continuing in 2008. The OECD still dominates, but there is now increasing activity from companies in China, India and Brazil. Chinese companies were the second largest recipient of venture capital in 2006 after the United States. In the same year, India was the largest net buyer of companies abroad, mainly in the more established European markets.
New government spending, regulation, and policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors. Most notably, U.S. President Wikipedia:Barack Obama's Wikipedia:American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 included more than $70 billion in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated transportation programs. This policy-stimulus combination represents the largest federal commitment in U.S. history for renewables, advanced transportation, and energy conservation initiatives. Based on these new rules, many more utilities strengthened their clean-energy programs. Wikipedia:Clean Edge suggests that the commercialization of clean energy will help countries around the world deal with the current economic malaise. Once-promising solar energy company, Wikipedia:Solyndra, became involved in a political controversy involving U.S. President Barack Obama's administration's authorization of a $535 million loan guarantee to the Corporation in 2009 as part of a program to promote alternative energy growth. The company ceased all business activity, filed for Wikipedia:Chapter 11 Wikipedia:bankruptcy, and laid-off nearly all of its employees in early September 2011.
In his January 24, 2012, Wikipedia:State of the Union address, President Barack Obama restated his commitment to renewable energy. Obama said that he "will not walk away from the promise of clean energy." Obama called for a commitment by the Defense Department to purchase 1,000 MW of renewable energy. He also mentioned the long-standing Interior Department commitment to permit 10,000 MW of renewable energy projects on public land in 2012.
As of 2012, renewable energy plays a major role in the energy mix of many countries globally. Renewables are becoming increasingly economic in both developing and developed countries. Prices for renewable energy technologies, primarily wind power and solar power, continued to drop, making renewables competitive with conventional energy sources. Without a level playing field, however, high market penetration of renewables is still dependent on a robust promotional policies. Fossil fuel subsidies, which are far higher than those for renewable energy, remain in place and quickly need to be phased out.
Wikipedia:United Nations' Secretary-General Wikipedia:Ban Ki-moon has said that "renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity". In October 2011, he "announced the creation of a high-level group to drum up support for energy access, energy efficiency and greater use of renewable energy. The group is to be co-chaired by Kandeh Yumkella, the chair of UN Energy and director general of the UN Industrial Development Organisation, and Charles Holliday, chairman of Bank of America".
Worldwide use of solar power and wind power continued to grow significantly in 2012. Solar electricity consumption increased by 58 percent, to 93 terawatt-hours (TWh). Use of wind power in 2012 increased by 18.1 percent, to 521.3 TWh. Global solar and wind energy installed capacities continued to expand even though new investments in these technologies declined during 2012. Worldwide investment in solar power in 2012 was $140.4 billion, an 11 percent decline from 2011, and wind power investment was down 10.1 percent, to $80.3 billion. But due to lower production costs for both technologies, total installed capacities grew sharply. This investment decline, but growth in installed capacity, may again occur in 2013. Analysts expect the market to triple by 2030.
100% renewable energyEdit
- Main article: 100% renewable energy
The incentive to use 100% renewable energy, for electricity, transport, or even total primary energy supply globally, has been motivated by Wikipedia:global warming and other ecological as well as economic concerns. The Wikipedia:Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has said that there are few fundamental technological limits to integrating a portfolio of renewable energy technologies to meet most of total global energy demand. In reviewing 164 recent scenarios of future renewable energy growth, the report noted that the majority expected renewable sources to supply more than 17% of total energy by 2030, and 27% by 2050; the highest forecast projected 43% supplied by renewables by 2030 and 77% by 2050. Renewable energy use has grown much faster than even advocates anticipated. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Also, Professors S. Pacala and Wikipedia:Robert H. Socolow have developed a series of “Wikipedia:stabilization wedges” that can allow us to maintain our quality of life while avoiding catastrophic climate change, and "renewable energy sources," in aggregate, constitute the largest number of their "wedges." 
Wikipedia:Mark Z. Jacobson, professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University and director of its Atmosphere and Energy Program says producing all new energy with Wikipedia:wind power, Wikipedia:solar power, and Wikipedia:hydropower by 2030 is feasible and existing energy supply arrangements could be replaced by 2050. Barriers to implementing the renewable energy plan are seen to be "primarily social and political, not technological or economic". Jacobson says that energy costs with a wind, solar, water system should be similar to today's energy costs.
Similarly, in the United States, the independent National Research Council has noted that “sufficient domestic renewable resources exist to allow renewable electricity to play a significant role in future electricity generation and thus help confront issues related to climate change, energy security, and the escalation of energy costs … Renewable energy is an attractive option because renewable resources available in the United States, taken collectively, can supply significantly greater amounts of electricity than the total current or projected domestic demand." .
The most significant barriers to the widespread implementation of large-scale renewable energy and low carbon energy strategies are primarily political and not technological. According to the 2013 Post Carbon Pathways report, which reviewed many international studies, the key roadblocks are: Wikipedia:climate change denial, the Wikipedia:fossil fuels lobby, political inaction, unsustainable energy consumption, outdated energy infrastructure, and financial constraints.
- Main article: Efficient energy use
Moving towards energy sustainability will require changes not only in the way energy is supplied, but in the way it is used, and reducing the amount of energy required to deliver various goods or services is essential. Opportunities for improvement on the demand side of the energy equation are as rich and diverse as those on the supply side, and often offer significant economic benefits.
A sustainable energy economy requires commitments to both renewables and efficiency. Renewable energy and energy efficiency are said to be the "twin pillars" of Wikipedia:sustainable energy policy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy has explained that both resources must be developed in order to stabilize and reduce carbon dioxide emissions:
Efficiency is essential to slowing the energy demand growth so that rising clean energy supplies can make deep cuts in fossil fuel use. If energy use grows too fast, renewable energy development will chase a receding target. Likewise, unless clean energy supplies come online rapidly, slowing demand growth will only begin to reduce total emissions; reducing the carbon content of energy sources is also needed.
The IEA has stated that renewable energy and energy efficiency policies are complementary tools for the development of a sustainable energy future, and should be developed together instead of being developed in isolation.
Fourth generation Edit
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Electricity Generation from Underutilized Energy
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Today, scientists are researching ways of producing electricity from underutilized energy, that which exists around us in daily life but is not put to use for any purpose in particular. This page especially covers thermoelectric generation sheets, electricity made from emission gas, and electricity made from kinetic energy. If such methods become more commonly used in the future, generating electricity will become less damaging to the environment. Some methods are still in need of further development, but we can expect them to become a more practical option in the future.
Thermoelectric generation sheetEdit
In 2013, the professors of Wikipedia:Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) invented the efficient thermoelectric generation sheet.  It generates electricity by using the difference of the temperatures between both ends of the sheet. It generates 10~1000 times as much electricity as other generation sheets do. Furthermore, it is made from Wikipedia:Carbon nanotube, which is flexible material, and we can put it up on curved surface. If we can apply it on our body, it can generate electricity by using our body temperature. It is thought that it can provide electricity of watches, hearing aids, monitors and so on. The professors of NAIST are now workin on developing it, intending to put it to practical use by 2018.
In 2013, the director of Japan Science and Technology Agency (Wikipedia:JST) authorized that the system of generation from emitting gas was a success. The system was developed by ATSUMITEC.(http://www.atsumitec.co.jp/en/public/index). Through using the system, 2.5％ of energy from 400cc emitting gas by a motorcycle was collected in this challenge. This is the same as producing 400 watts of electricity!! How the system itself works is we produce power by hydrogen and hydrocarbon,which is included in emmitting gas, and by the heat of the emitting gas (about 600 degrees). Also, fuel cell, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is used to take out the electric power. But the fuel cell alone is not enough, so the Wikipedia:thermoelecrtic transducer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_generator) is used, too. At first, JST had asked ATSUMITEC about the development of the thchnology of changing heat into electricity. Then they aimed to put it to practical use and they decided to put the weight on low cost and small body. They developed the tube SOFC from low-cost material and sothermoelecrtic transducer, which is shared with thecnology and material of SOFC. Tube SOFC is not effected very much by the dramatical change of heat from movement of vehicle, especially motorbike, etc. Also, the tube SOFC can save some part of material. While, the sothermoelectric transducer has a benefit. It is the efficiency of collecting heat by the close structure between the tube SOFC and the sothermoelectric transducer. ATSMITEC continues to develop the point of producing more power. They seem to plan to commercialize in 2015. JST expects the system to make use of portable machines and the equipment of emitting gas from factories, as well as vehicles in the future.
Kōhei Hayamizu, who is the founder of Soundpower Corporation, developed a system in which the Wikipedia:Kinetic energy that people have when walking is converted into electricity through a special power-generating floor. This innovative floor generates electricity with the vibration that the floor receives from the footsteps when people walk on it. Hayamizu explains that he came up with the initial idea of making electricity from soundpower and vibrations when he was in elementary school, and later when he went to Keiō University, he invented this system. This floor is made of a Piezoelectric material which captures even the smallest pressure that is put on it and creates electricity out of it.  With each step that is taken on the floor, enough electricity to light 100 to 200 LED lights for a moment is produced. This method is still in the course of developing since the electricity made from kinetic energy cannot power large lighting equipment at this point. However, progress is surely being made as can be seen in some successful trial runs that have been made of this system. One has been done at the crossing near Shibuya train station in 2008. The location was selected since Shibuya train station is one of the most crowded places in the world let alone in Japan, with as many as 900,000 people walking by per day. The estimated amount of electricity to be made by the power-generating floor that covered one square meter of the crossing during the 20 day trial run was enough to keep a TV on for 1,422 hours. Hayamizu explains that since this system takes kinetic energy which is a sustainable resource that people produce for as long as they live, and turns it into electricity before you know it, it is a cost effective and eco-friendly way of producing electricity. 
The soccer ball that generates electricity every time it is kicked. It generates electricity by rolling. For every 30 minutes spent playing soccer with it, it will generate electricity which works a LED lamp for about 3 hours. 
The camp stove that generates electricity when we build fire with it. You can use twigs for the fuel.
Orange power welliesEdit
The boots that generate electricity by using the temperature of the feet of the person wearing them. If a person puts them on for about 12 hours, they can power a cellphone for an hour. 
The generator that uses candlelight. A candle can generate a quarter-watt electricity and let a LED lamp run for about 4 hours.
The generator that generates electricity from vibration. If we take it with us and take a walk for 25 minutes, it generates electricity which works an Wikipedia:IPhone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPhone) for a minute.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Wikipedia:International Energy Agency (2007). Renewables in global energy supply: An IEA facts sheet (PDF) OECD, 34 pages.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 International Renewable Energy Agency (2012). "Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012: An Overview". http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/Overview_Renewable%20Power%20Generation%20Costs%20in%202012.pdf.
- ↑ Donald W. Aitken. Transitioning to a Renewable Energy Future, Wikipedia:International Solar Energy Society, January 2010, p. 3.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 REN21 (2012). Renewables Global Status Report 2012 p. 17.
- ↑ Wikipedia:REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report". pp. 11–13. http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Wikipedia:REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report". p. 35. http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf.
- ↑ Top of the list, Renewable Energy World, 2 January 2006.
- ↑ Keith Johnson, Wind Shear: GE Wins, Vestas Loses in Wind-Power Market Race, Wall Street Journal, March 25th 2009, accessed on January 7th 2010.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 International Energy Agency. IEA urges governments to adopt effective policies based on key design principles to accelerate the exploitation of the large potential for renewable energy 29 September 2008.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Wikipedia:REN21 (2006). Changing climates: The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon-constrained World (PDF) p. 2.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 HM Treasury (2006). Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 New UN report points to power of renewable energy to mitigate carbon emissions UN News Centre, 8 December 2007.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Wikipedia:Joel Makower, Wikipedia:Ron Pernick and Wikipedia:Clint Wilder (2008). Clean Energy Trends 2008, Wikipedia:Clean Edge, p. 2.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 United Nations Environment Programme and New Energy Finance Ltd. (2007). Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries (PDF) p. 3.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Ben Sills (August 29, 2011). "Solar May Produce Most of World’s Power by 2060, IEA Says". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-08-29/solar-may-produce-most-of-world-s-power-by-2060-iea-says.html.
- ↑ "Japan's nuclear disaster boosts renewables". UPI.com. March 21, 2011. http://www.upi.com/Science_News/Resource-Wars/2011/03/21/Japans-nuclear-disaster-boosts-renewables/UPI-28501300714143/#ixzz1HJPwVWKa.
- ↑ John Vidall (15 March 2011). "Japan nuclear crisis prompts surging investor confidence in renewables". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/mar/15/japan-nuclear-explosion-energy-renewables.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Lindsay Morris (25 January 2012). "Obama: Sticking to "Promise of Clean Energy"". Renewable Energy World. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2012/01/obama-sticking-to-promise-of-clean-energy?cmpid=SolarNL-Thursday-January26-2012.
- ↑ Wikipedia:REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 9 & 34.
- ↑ Bloomberg New Energy Finance, UNEP SEFI, Frankfurt School, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011
- ↑ Edwin Cartlidge (18 November 2011). "Saving for a rainy day". Science (Vol 334). pp. 922–924.
- ↑ Ipsos 2011, p. 3
- ↑ Jacobson, Mark Z. and Delucchi, Mark A. (2010). "Providing all Global Energy with Wind, Water, and Solar Power, Part I: Technologies, Energy Resources, Quantities and Areas of Infrastructure, and Materials". Energy Policy. http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/JDEnPolicyPt1.pdf.
- ↑ Wikipedia:Lester R. Brown. Plan B 4.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization, Wikipedia:Earth Policy Institute, 2009, p. 135.
- ↑ Wikipedia:Council on Foreign Relations (January 18, 2012). "Public Opinion on Global Issues: Chapter 5b: World Opinion on Energy Security". http://www.cfr.org/public_opinion.
- ↑ "Large Majorities in US and Europe Endorse Focus on Renewable Energy". World Public Opinion. January 18, 2012. http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btenvironmentra/707.php.
- ↑ Synapse Energy Economics (November 16, 2011). "Toward a Sustainable Future for the U.S. Power Sector: Beyond Business as Usual 2011". http://www.civilsocietyinstitute.org/media/pdfs/Toward%20a%20Sustainable%20Future%2011-16-11.pdf.
- ↑ Wikipedia:REN21 (2014). "Renewables 2014 Global Status Report". (Paris: REN21 Secretariat). Template:Citation/identifier. http://www.ren21.net/Portals/0/documents/Resources/GSR/2014/GSR2014_full%20report_low%20res.pdf.
- ↑ Renewables 2012 Global status report Executive summary REN21
- ↑ Wikipedia:REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 15.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 "Renewables Investment Breaks Records". Renewable Energy World. 29 August 2011. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2011/08/renewables-investment-breaks-records?cmpid=SolarNL-Tuesday-August30-2011.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Wikipedia:Eric Martinot and Janet Sawin. Renewables Global Status Report 2009 Update, Renewable Energy World, September 9, 2009.
- ↑ UNEP, Bloomberg, Frankfurt School, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011、Figure 24.
- ↑ Wikipedia:REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report". p. 15. http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/GSR2011_Master18.pdf.
- ↑ REN21 (2009). Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update p. 9.
- ↑ REN21 (2013). Renewables 2013 Global Status Report, (Paris: REN21 Secretariat), ISBN 978-3-9815934-0-2.
- ↑ US Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly
- ↑ Renewable Energy Capacity and Generation
- ↑ E. Lantz, M. Hand, and R. Wiser (May 13–17, 2012) "The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy," National Renewable Energy Laboratory conference paper no. 6A20-54526, page 4
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 Henning Gloystein (Nov 23, 2011). "Renewable energy becoming cost competitive, IEA says". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/11/23/us-energy-iea-renewables-idUSTRE7AM0OV20111123.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 41.2 Worldwatch Institute (January 2012). "Use and Capacity of Global Hydropower Increases". http://www.worldwatch.org/node/9527.
- ↑ Bertani, R., 2003, "What is Geothermal Potential?", IGA News, 53, page 1-3.
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 43.2 Fridleifsson, I.B., R. Bertani, E. Huenges, J. W. Lund, A. Ragnarsson, and L. Rybach (2008). The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change. In: O. Hohmeyer and T. Trittin (Eds.), IPCC Scoping Meeting on Renewable Energy Sources, Proceedings, Luebeck, Germany, 20–25 January 2008, p. 59-80.
- ↑ Islandsbanki Geothermal Research, United States Geothermal Energy Market Report, October 2009, accessed through website of Islandbanki.
- ↑ Leonora Walet. Philippines targets $2.5 billion geothermal development, Reuters, November 5, 2009.
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 Wikipedia:REN21 (2009). Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update pp. 12-13.
- ↑ Brian Norton (2011) Solar Water Heaters: A Review of Systems Research and Design Innovation, Green. 1, 189–207, ISSN (Online) 1869-8778
- ↑ International Energy Agency. Solar assisted air-conditioning of buildings
- ↑ Lester R. Brown. Plan B 4.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization, Earth Policy Institute, 2009, p. 122.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 Denis Lenardic. Large-scale photovoltaic power plants ranking 1 – 50 PVresources.com, 2010.
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See also Edit
- Wikipedia:Clean Energy Trends
- Wikipedia:Cost of electricity by source
- Wikipedia:Energy security and renewable technology
- Wikipedia:Environmental tariff
- Wikipedia:Feed-in Tariff
- Wikipedia:International Renewable Energy Agency
- Wikipedia:PV financial incentives
- Wikipedia:Rocky Mountain Institute
- Wikipedia:The Clean Tech Revolution
- Wikipedia:The Third Industrial Revolution
- Wikipedia:World Council for Renewable Energy
- Main article: List of people associated with renewable energy
Wikipedia:Template:Renewable energy lists Wikipedia:Template:Renewable energy by country Wikipedia:Template:Wind power Wikipedia:Template:Solar energy Wikipedia:Template:Hydropower Wikipedia:Template:Bioenergy Wikipedia:Template:Sustainability
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- EurObserv'ER (2012). The state of renewable energies in Europe, 250 pages.
- Wikipedia:HM Treasury (2006). Wikipedia:Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, 575 pages.
- International Council for Science (c2006). Discussion Paper by the Scientific and Technological Community for the 14th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, 17 pages.
- Wikipedia:International Energy Agency (2006). World Energy Outlook 2006: Summary and Conclusions, Wikipedia:OECD, 11 pages.
- Wikipedia:International Energy Agency (2007). Renewables in global energy supply: An IEA facts sheet, OECD, 34 pages.
- Wikipedia:International Energy Agency (2008). Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies, OECD, 8 pages.
- Wikipedia:International Energy Agency (2011). Wikipedia:Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice, OECD.
- Wikipedia:International Energy Agency (2011). Wikipedia:Solar Energy Perspectives, OECD.
- Lovins, Amory B. (2011). Wikipedia:Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Solutions for the New Energy Era, Chelsea Green Publishing, 334 pages.
- Makower, Joel, and Wikipedia:Ron Pernick and Wikipedia:Clint Wilder (2009). Wikipedia:Clean Energy Trends 2009, Wikipedia:Clean Edge.
- Wikipedia:National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2006). Non-technical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature, Technical Report, NREL/TP-520-40116, September, 30 pages.
- Pernick, Ron and Wilder, Clint (2012). Clean Tech Nation: How the U.S. Can Lead in the New Global Economy, HarperCollins.
- Wikipedia:REN21 (2008). Renewables 2007 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 51 pages.
- Wikipedia:REN21 (2009). Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update, Paris: REN21 Secretariat.
- Wikipedia:REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 78 pages.
- Wikipedia:REN21 (2011). Renewables 2011: Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat.
- Wikipedia:REN21 (2012). Renewables 2012: Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat.
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- Investing: Green technology has big growth potential, LA Times, 2011
- Global Renewable Energy: Policies and Measures
- Missing the Market Meltdown
- Bureau of Land Management 2012 Renewable Energy Priority Projects