Reused art can be distinguished by comparison with Found Art and reused items. In many cases, partly because it was a grassroots art movement of many amateurs (and thus folk art), reused art is purely decorative, representative art, or making a statement about the materials used (the beauty of nature, in the case of driftwood art, or the need to reduce, reuse, recycle, in Junk Art and its kin.
Found Art Edit
Found Art (or "ready-made") as a movement subverts the intention of the manufacturers of objects with new intent. Marcel Duchamp, for example, titled a urinal as a "fountain"; his work is typical of Found Art that is an ironic reference to the original purpose of the object. Pablo Picasso welded together a bicycle seat and racing handlebars for an entirely new and unrelated artistic statement, calling it Head of a Bull. But there is still a reference back to the original objects, even when Man Ray renders useless an iron by hammering nails into it, and removes it from its original context with his title for the piece, Gift.
Junk Art Edit
A specific sub-genre of found art is known as trash art or junk art. These works primarily comprise components that have been discarded. Often they come quite literally from the trash. One example of trash art is Wikipedia:Trashion, basically using trash to create fashion. Many organizations sponsor junk art competitions. Trash art may also have a social purpose, of raising awareness of trash.
Creating and using trash art can expose people to hazardous substances. For instance, older computer and electronic components can contain lead (in solder and insulation). Jewelry made from these items may require careful handling. In France, trash art became known as "Poubellisme", art made from contents of "poubelles" (trash bins) Spanish artist Francisco de Pajaro(Art is trash or Arte es basura) established in London is doing art with rubbish.See West Bank Gallery.London
Driftwood Art Edit
Driftwood Sculptures are sculptures that are made of driftwood from beaches or mudflats, and are often installed there also. At Wikipedia:Kullaberg, Wikipedia:Sweden, Wikipedia:Lars Vilks created in the Limis, a driftwood artwork in the year 1980. This sculpture and two others led to the declaration of Ladonia as an independent micronation. Sculptures were created on the Wikipedia:Emeryville, California mudflat and marsh area of Wikipedia:San Francisco Bay in the late 1960s. A driftwood sculpture was constructed in the Chapelle St Anne d' Arles (France) by the visitors to the exhibition "Marcher dans le pas des glaneurs" organized by "A Flots perdus" (Arlésiens artists), in March 2008. The Wikipedia:Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy (sometimes called the "Green Oscars") are sculpted out of driftwood. Artist Wikipedia:Deborah Butterfield is known for her sculptures of horses, initially rendered from driftwood before being cast in bronze.
Emeryville Crescent Edit
At one time, the Emeryville Mudflats were famous for their stench. In the 19th and early 20th century, this was caused by the effluent from the several meat-packing plants along the bayshore called "Butchertown". Stripped carcasses were also dumped in the bay here. Later on, untreated sewage from Emeryville, Oakland, and Berkeley flowed directly into the bay over the mudflats producing hydrogen sulfide gas, particularly noticeable on warm days. In the 1950s the Wikipedia:East Bay Municipal Utility District constructed a regional sewage treatment plant near the eastern terminus of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge, which, for the most part, cured the noxious problem.
The Emeryville Mudflats became famous in the 1960s and 1970s for public art, erected from Wikipedia:driftwood timbers and boards by professional and amateur artists and art students from local high schools, UC Berkeley, the Wikipedia:California College of Arts and Crafts and the Free University of Berkeley. The mudflats were even featured in the 1971 film Wikipedia:Harold and Maude. These works were admired by some drivers heading westbound on the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge from Interstate 80.
In the late 1990s, the sculptures and materials were removed. Arguments for removal referred to the sculptures as unsanctioned, and the use of the tiny footprint that each left on nature as having neither gained permission nor given compensation to its owners. Saner but misinformed, and ultimately misinforming arguments were made that removal was in the interest of establishing a more natural and undisturbed marshland for the nurturing of wildlife. While restoring to the wild state continues around the bay in many other wetlands, former diked grazing fields, and salt production evaporation ponds, the very composition of the driftwood sculptures, fallen bits of trees that had washed up on those very shores, made it impossible for them to be an ecological intrusion. The entire concept is somewhat laughable considering the presentation as a whole-sculptures for an audience of fossil fuel consumers on the highway that ran alongside. The highway is further, the source of a real threat-tourists. A better solution would have been to step up Highway Patrol presence and install security cams along its length.
Historically, Emeryville had been the location of a number of heavy industrial uses such as Wikipedia:P.I.E, whose properties were developed by bringing in waste and construction debris fill from San Francisco in the early 1900s. Correspondingly much of the underlying soil contained Wikipedia:heavy metals, Wikipedia:hydrocarbons and other soil contaminants. Much of this contamination was removed in the 1980s when the considerable wave of redevelopment occurred. The population had increased to almost 7,000 by the year 2000. Since then, the population has continued to grow and is estimated by General Plan projects a population of 16,600 by 2030. In addition, the city is home to about 20,000 current jobs; this number is projected to increase to about 30,000 by 2030.
Automobile Art Edit
While many hippie buses and Wikipedia:Volkswagen Beetles and VW Vans were decorated with paint alone, artists frequently would make Wikipedia:Mosaics of beads, glass, colored plastic-anything colorful or shiny. The effect and intent was purely decorative, and, as befitted the medium, usually strong designs or symbols or images were favored over complex representative art. Not only did the original objects gain a new identity from their decoration, but the mosaic medium gained from its use on a three-dimensional shape.
Textile decoration Edit
Wall hangings, patchwork linens and clothing, etc, while almost exclusively the province of embroidery and bead decoration, did and do occasionally extend to nontraditional objects during the 1960s and beyond.
Reused items Edit