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Simulation in entertainment
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Simulation in entertainment refers to simulations which encompass many large and popular industries such as computer and video games (including serious games), film and television, music, education, and amusement park rides. Simulations, themselves, are imitations of real-world processes or systems over time. Therefore, simulations in entertainment are imitations of real-world processes or systems used for the sake of enjoyment. While simulations got their start with flight and military simulations, the industry has developed into an empire which can support creating simulations simply for their entertainment value. Examples of this type of simulation include the video game, Wikipedia:The Sims, the CGI dinosaurs used in films such as Wikipedia:Jurassic Park, medical mannequins such as Harvey, and Disney’s simulator ride Soarin’.
Early History (1920s -60s) Edit
1920-1940s Movies such as Willis O’Brian’s The Lost World (1925) and Fritz Lang’s Metropolis (1926) began to change the world of film with the use of Stop Motion. Stop Motion is a film technique that creates the illusion of live, moving objects with the use of still figures. The creation of this motion is made by taking still photographs of the figures, while moving them slightly in between frames. Those frames are then played in a continuous sequence to produce a film with motion. During the production of Metropolis, the Director Fritz Lang and Eugan Schufftan developed another film effect technique called the Schufftan process. The possibilites of computer graphic and animation in film continued to grow through the 40s with the production of movies such as King Kong (1933).
1950s-1960s There was not a lot of new technology developed during the early 60s for the use of animation and effects in film. Movies continued to use the classic Stop Motion techniques to give movie goers the most realistic experience. Popular movies during the 60s that utilized the Stop Motion technique were Jason and the Argonauts (1963) and Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds. During the late 60s, the development of new techniques began to rise again with Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey. The use of computer graphics began to grow rapidly with the development of technology such as:
- 1962-The invention of the Sketchpad by Ivan Sutherland
- 1966-The first Computer Graphics department opened at the University of Utah
- 1967-2 Dimensional morphing techniques and Environmental Reflection were developed at the University of Toronto
- 1968- Ivan Sutherland and David Evans created the worlds first Compter Graphics company
- 1968- The Ray Tracing technique was developed by Bell Labs in collaboration with Cornell University
Modern Simulation (1970s-present)
1970s-1980s During the 70s Computer Graphics technology continued to grow rapidly with the contributions of James Blinn, David Em, and many others.
- 1970-Bezier Curves were invented
- 1971-Gouraud Shading was created
- 1975- Phong Shading was created
- 1975- The influential development of the CG teapot
- 1976- The development of Computer Mapping by James Blinn
- 1978- The development of Bump Mapping by James Blinn
In 1974 Ed Catmull developed a technique called texture mapping, which James Blinn also worked on in 1976. During this time many innovative computer companies were beginning to open like Microsoft and Apple. The Movies such as Star Wars (1977) and Alien (1979) continued to take advantage and build on the computer graphics techniques of the time.
The 1980s continued to show advancement in the computer graphics world. George Lucas’ company Industrial Light and Magic pioneered the first all digital CG image for Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982) and Disney’s Tron (1982) was the first film to use extensive 3D CG. In 1982 Chris Wedge revolutionized the industry with Where the Wild Things Are when the film makers digitally composed 3D backgrounds with animations that were traditionally designed. The 80s also gave birth to many new computer graphics companies such as:
- 1982- Silicon Graphics Inc.
- 1983-Alias Research Inc.
- 1984- Wavefront
The 1980s also brought a lot of firsts in computer graphics to the film industry.
- 1986- Howard the Duck was the first film to use digital wire removal
- 1986- Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home was the first to use 3D scanning by Cyberware on a film
- 1987- Captain Power and the Soldiers of the Future was the first TV series to use fully computer models characters
- 1988- Willow used the first digital morph
The Abyss in 1989 also marked an influential point in computer graphics with the creation of their water.
In 1979 Disney began the design stage of their first simulated ride, which ultimately ended because the film it was based on did not provide enough popularity. A few years later Disney began the collaboration with George Lucas for a new simulation ride based on the film Star Wars. The production team was confident that this ride would be backed with plenty of excitement from the public and in preparation bought four military simulators to use for production. The production of the simulation involved the programmers sitting in the cockpit and manually programming the movement according to what was happening on the screen at the time. The ride finally opened in 1987 with great success. Since the success of the Star Wars ride, many simulation rides have opened throughout the world at Universal Studios, Disney, and many other theme parks. Since the success of the Star Wars ride, many simulation rides have opened throughout the world at Universal Studios, Disney, and many other theme parks. The popularity of these rides has increased because the user gets to not just experience the film, but to physically experience the motion that the characters are experiencing as well .
The 1990s continued to provide a rich background for the entertainment industry to build on. The computer graphics companies thrived and consistently produced new movies demonstrating how advanced the industry had become. James Cameron’s Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) changed the way that the world saw computer graphics The digitally created character was the first major digital character since producers created a moving stained glass knight in Young Sherlock Holmes. The groundbreaking production for the 90s was Steven Spielberg’s Jurassic Park (1993). this film involved the production of CG dinosaurs and many other ground breaking images. Toy Story was also released in the 90s, becoming the first full length 3D film. In 1999 George Lucas released Star Wars Episode 1: The Phantom Menace which contained about 2,000 digital effects and was considered the largest production of computer animation ad special effects in history. There were also many tools created in the 90s for the creation of computer graphics:
- Softimage 3D
- Electric Image
- After Effects
The new millennium was faced with the big question of where to go next with computer graphics. so much had been accomplished and yet the entertainment still wanted more. Viewers and film makers were fascinated with what they could accomplish and create with computers and the industry started to realize that their options were infinite.
The next obvious move for simulation in theme parks was to integrate 3D into the rides. Recently the original Star Wars ride has been updated with 3D technology and the Despicable Me ride has just recently opened at Universal Studios-Orlando. Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey is another current example of simulation in theme parks. This simulation ride is groundbreaking in its technology because it implements the use of robotic arms to move the “magic benches” in any direction .
Computer and video games
In common use a "PC game" refers to a program that allows a player to interact with a virtual environment via a home computer (e.g., tower with monitor). Use of simulation in computer based gaming is possible due to increased use of computer generated images (CGI) that produce realistic effects and simulate real-world environments and events. Game types in general share similarities but will differ based on the platform. For example, some computer games are purely PC-based whereas other traditionally known as computer based games are now available in the form of applications for smart phones and use over the internet for a shared playing experience.
Some simulation computer games include training content that can be delivered via computer in use of computer based-training  and intelligent tutoring systems . However, there are several types of computer-based simulation games that are available for the pure enjoyment of the user.
Types of PC based games Each game and game type has its own strategy which makes it unique . Types and examples of computer based gaming with simulation are noted below.
Card games Card games for the computer are simply computerized versions of traditional games using virtual instead of real cards. While not highly technical, game play with the computer is intended to simulate playing cards as if with a person.
Action Action games for the computer let the human player to control an avatar or character in a virtual environment to shoot, kill, or attack various objects. Action games can range from very low fidelity and immersive quality in their simulated environments and characters to relatively high fidelity. Some examples include Doom, Quake, Descent, and Wikipedia:Unreal.
Adventure Adventure computer games incorporate some elements of action games , however, have more of a focus on the story line. The settings can emulate fiction or historical events dependent on the nature of the gaming contents. Due to their use of story lines, this type of gaming can be highly immersive. Some examples include Raiders of the Lost Ark and Superman.
Role Playing Role playing games can take on different lives because of different species, race, gender, and occupation of the character. While they are usually highly fictitious, characters are generally based upon roles similar to those in real-life or historical events . Some popular examples include Diablo, Dungeons & Dragons, and Wikipedia:Ultima.
Strategy Strategy games can simulate war time events as well as complex problems. The player can control resource allocation, organization of events, and certain characters or units within the game. Some examples of this type of game include Age of Empire and Wikipedia:Warcraft.
Sports Sports games adapt the existing rules, stratgies, and game play of real-world sports (sometimes varying them) and simulate real-life or close to real-life capabilities and maneuvers. Some examples of sports available for computer gaming include golf, volleyball, soccer, Wikipedia:American football, and tennis.
PC to Console MigrationEdit
Consoles began replacing PC-based platform games with the production of the Magnavox in the early 70s, although their popularity did not increase until use of microprocessors and release of popular arcade games such as Donkey Kong in the early 1980s. Wikipedia:Atari began to realize the earning potential of consoles which then began what is termed "the golden age of video arcade games". While the focus was still not on consoles, Atari's new focus on video games and the increasing popularity of arcade style games helped to launch video games as a mainstream hobby and replacing the popularity of computer based gaming.
A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device . Video game types in Wikipedia:simulation, however, can be divided based on their created purpose.The ability of the graphics in order to recreate and create realistic characters and environments without training content distinguish simulation gaming from other forms of gaming (e.g., serious game). Serious simulation gaming is modeled around core competencies the game is intended to teach. Examples of this include early childhood learning games such as leapfrog . However, the vast majority of games exist purely for enjoyment and are referred to as casual games.
There have been some controversies over casual gaming, particularly in regards to content used in the game and the realism of graphics. Arguably, there may be some crossover between what is considered a serious game (e.g., Wikipedia:Super Army War). Some complaints with use of simulated war games for entertainment is that it creates "war without tears". Controversies over video games mainly have to do with translating violent content to daily use for entertainment. Despite these controversies, the video game rating system exists to try to protect young children from interaction with violent gaming content.
Video games genres with SimulationEdit
Wikipedia:Video game genres are another way to differentiate types of video games besides their purpose to entertain or teach. The types of video games by genre share many similarities with computer based gaming; however, the focus of this is on genres which utilize simulation tactics. The purpose of the division by genre means that graphics, setting, Shooter games have different subtypes based on how the player is interacting with the game. They can be single player or mulltiplayer with varying degrees of realism.
Action Games An Wikipedia:action game is a type of video game in which the user controls the avatar in the simulated game play environment and types of game play include physical challenges, coordination, and a good reaction time. Sometimes these games have levels which present different challenges as the user successfully navigates through the playing field. Action games are a major genre of video gaming that can be subdivided into smaller areas of interest, or subgenres. The popularity of simulation in action games has grown with a demand for realistic graphics and permeates the subgenres. 
First person shooter focuses the gameplay as if the player was the protagonist of the story. Third person shooters allows for the user to still play as the protagonist, but the visibility of the character or avatar is on screen and game play is not viewed from avatar's perspective.
Both first person shooters and third person shooters have games available over the internet for massively multiplayer online shooter games where the ability to play with friends in real-time is possible. Through consoles such as Wikipedia:Xbox 360 through Xbox live, Wikipedia:Nintendo DS, Wikipedia:PlayStation 3 and Wikipedia:Wii as well as smart phone platforms such as Android, iOS and windows phone.
Another subgenre of action games is fighting games where there is close combat with an opponent who is either part of the game or another player..The goal of an action fighting game is simple- beat your opponent or opponents to result in a knockout or KO. This subgenre was revolutionized in the 1990s with StreetFighter II but this game type did not reach the simulation world until Nintendo's release of Super Smash Bros with the Nintendo 64 gaming system.
Role playing games. Another popular element of video games is in its Role-playing ability. Role playing video games, or RPGs, are similar to a third person shooter in that the user interacts with the system by controlling an avatar. However, RPGs can use control of one or several different characters and have highly complex narrative elements as well as replayability and immersion characteristics. These games have quickly evolved from pen-and-paper versions (e.g., Wikipedia:Dungeon and Dragons) to high quality, 3-dimensional graphics. What helps distinguish RPGs from other video game types is how the immersion is done. There can be quests, exploration, fictitious settings, combat and time-keeping systems. These realistic components in a strategy based game with story line combined with realistic graphics helps create the psychological fidelity that makes RPGs so enjoyable. .
Examples of high-fidelity RPGs include: Wikipedia:Blue Dragon, Wikipedia:Fallout 3, Wikipedia:Final Fantasy XI, Wikipedia:Marvel: Ultimate Alliance, Mass Effect, Wikipedia:Phantasy Star Universe, Wikipedia:Enchanted Arms, Wikipedia:Eternal Sonata, and Two Worlds.
Sports Games Sports games are an excellent example of simulation in gaming in that the rules, strategies, and often times available avatar players, are based off of the sport in real-life. An excellent combination of realistic graphics with sports games is Madden football 64. Available in the first 3-d capable console (N-64), users were able to navigate the virtual team and engage in realistic game play using team's actual coaches and real football strategies. Examples include: Tiger Woods PGA Tour, Wikipedia:FIFA series, NBA Live, and Wikipedia:Madden Football.
Early simulation in film was usually created using post-production film editing techniques, such as superimposed images, double-exposures, Wikipedia:dissolves, and Wikipedia:jump cuts, and many of these techniques are still used today. As the film industry advanced, many methods of simulation for special effects were developed to support the filmmaker’s vision of what their story should look like.
Wikipedia:Automatons are puppets that are animated using electromechanical devices, and date back to the middle ages, when mechanized puppets were used as toys or in shows. Westinghouse created an exhibit for the 1939 World Fair featuring automatons. Walt Disney advanced automatons to appear more animated than robotic in the early 1960s, thus creating ‘Wikipedia:animatronics’. Animatronics are used in theme parks (Disneyland’s Wikipedia:Hall of Presidents) as well as in filmmaking (Wikipedia:Jaws). Although the movement of animatronic creatures still does not appear completely lifelike, the advantage over CGI is that the creature is actually moving in front of the camera with the actors.
Wikipedia:Stop motion animation is a technique that makes a physically-manipulated object appear to move on its own. The object is moved in small increments, with each step photographed, and the illusion of movement is created when the photographs are played in a continuous sequence. Variations of stop motion animation include stereoscopic 3D and go motion, in which computers are used to program the movements of the models, resulting in smoother movements. The stop motion animation technique dates back to The Humpty Dumpty Circus (1897), in which a toy circus appears to come to life. The clay animation (clay-mation) version of stop motion animation was first used in 1912’s Modelling Extraordinary. Willis O’Brien was an early pioneer of stop motion animation, and two films he created in these early days are considered historically significant, The Lost World (1925), and King Kong (1933) and preserved in the Wikipedia:National Film Registry. Stop motion has remained a popular animation method in film and television, and today is often used for children’s programming and comedy television; however, some movie makers prefer stop motion to computer generated imagery for the realistic way in which textures are captured with stop motion.
Another form of simulation often used in film and television is Wikipedia:chroma key compositing, which is when the actor is filmed against a color range in the top layer of an image is made transparent so that another image is revealed behind. A variation of this is blue screen or green screen, where the actor is filmed against a solid background, then that background is replaced later with another image or video stream. One of the earliest examples of bluescreen use in film is Wikipedia:The Old Man and the Sea (1958).
Computer Generated Images (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create special effects and imagery in a variety of visual media. When the imagery is dynamic, as in film or television, it is referred to as computer animation; when the imagery is static, such as in interactive environments, it is referred to as a virtual world.
Computer generated images began appearing in film as early as the late 1960's . Hummingbird (1967) was the first computer generated film, a ten-minute line drawing animation of a hummingbird in flight .
Animated wireframe graphics were first used in Wikipedia:Star Wars, 1977. The video used in the trench run briefing was created by Larry Cuba at the University of Illinois Chicago. Photographs of the Death Star trench and the set models were digitized, then these wireframe images were patched together into one-shot scenes, then the scenes were string together to create the animation sequence seen in the film .
The first CGI human character appeared in the 1981 film The Looker . Actor Susan Dey’s body was digitized and recreated using shaded 3D imagery. The first realistic CGI animal appears in Labyrinth, 1986.
Computer generated imagery was often used piecemeal in films, usually when there was no other way to create the desired effect, or sometimes as a draw for the movie itself, such as with Wikipedia:Tron’s (1982) much-hyped 15 minutes of computer-generated 3D computer world and Wikipedia:Light Cycle sequence. This changed with the creation of Jurassic Park.
Jurassic Park introduced the first photorealistic CG characters. Since the creation of Jurassic Park, CGI has continued to advance. In 1995, computer generated imagery was used to create stunt doubles (Wikipedia:Judge Dredd and Wikipedia:Batman Forever); the ability to create photorealistic hair was next (Wikipedia:Jumanji) and then the first movie that had a CG character in a lead role (Wikipedia:Casper). In 1996, the ability to give a CG character the ability to show facial expression and to speak was developed (Wikipedia:Dragonheart), as well as creating large crowds (Wikipedia:The Hunchback of Notre Dame). After this, CGI in films seemed to have turned from trying to recreate actors and settings that do exist, to creating situations and settings that do not or cannot exist (The Matrix’s ‘Bullet Time’ effect, for example).
Wikipedia:Motion capture is the process of recording movements of an actor then using those recordings to create 2D or 3D computer animation. It has advantages over traditional CGI methods in that real-time results can be created, usually at a lesser cost, actions can be captured in a more realistic manner than created using CGI techniques and a greater amount of animation can be produced in any given amount of time. However, it does have several disadvantages, among which is that scenes must be reshot in their entirety when problems occur. The Lord of The Rings: The Two Towers was the first film to feature real-time motion capture, combining CGI with motion capture for the character Wikipedia:Gollum.
Although they often use newer technologies, educational entertainment simulations are not a new phenomenon. In the most basic example, children's Wikipedia:games are educational simulations. A variety of audiences, including students of all ages, soldiers in the military, and workers in nearly any occupation can learn skills using entertainment simulations.
Types of educational entertainment simulations Edit
Group simulations Edit
These simulations involve the action by members of a group of being someone or something and acting accordingly (role-playing). These simulations often use props, but props are not required. One example of group simulations is a Wikipedia:mock trial, where participants play the various roles of attorneys, witnesses, the jury and judge, in an effort to learn about the judiciary system. This type of simulation is often done competitively at high school and college levels. Another example of group simulations for educational purposes is the Wikipedia:Model United Nations. This simulation allows student participants to role-play as diplomats to discuss and debate the same issues presented to the United Nations. Using a program called Wikipedia:Global Classroom, participants from around the world are able to connect and discuss these issues, with the program goal of helping these students become more educated global citizens.
Facilities Simulations Edit
Facilities simulations include props or facilities to make the simulations more realistic and entertaining. These do not necessarily require a specific area to enact the simulation, rather an existing area such as a classroom is often enhanced. In one example of this type of simulation, young children playing in toy kitchens, children learn social and fine motor skills by imitating commonly witnessed activities, using safe versions of adult household utensils and cookware.
Virtual Reality Simulations Edit
These simulations use computers to create simulated environments for participants to navigate. These simulations may be installed on a computer or deployed via the World Wide Web. Many educational computer games are available for home and business computers to instruct users in nearly any imaginable skill. Additionally, many educational games can be found on the Internet, both free of charge and for considerable sums of money. Often, these educational simulations attempt to maximize the entertainment value of the program to engage the user, theoretically improving the educational experience.
Many educational institutions have found developed online simulations for the public good. One such organization, the Nobel Prize Foundation, has developed a number of educational activities, including a simulation that explores the use of electrocardiograms from the perspective of a clinician. Such simulations are widely available to the public and allow users to explore various topics of interest at their own pace.
Simulation in entertainment has even made strides in the music industry. Several software applications are available simulating the sounds of a variety of instruments including guitars, pianos, drums, and percussion instruments. One particular application, Aviary Roc Music Creator, allows a user to utilize those instruments to create loops, ringtones, and MP3s. Advances in these simulations make it possible to create whole songs using just the apps. Other examples of software programs include Pianoeasy, Wikipedia:GarageBand, Proxima Controller, FlexiMusic Orchestra, DoReMe Music, and PianoFX STUDIO.
Wikipedia:GarageBand, in particular, has popularized the virtual instrument software industry. Not only does it include virtual instruments, but it provides a variety of adjustable parameters. The parameters include, but are not limited to richness, glide, cut off, and standard attack. It was made with the intention of simplifying the creation and organization of digital content. Now, all one has to do to create their own songs is own an apple product and purchase the application. According to TechDigest, popular music artists and bands who have used Wikipedia:Garageband include:
- Wikipedia:Kate Nash
- Wikipedia:Fred Durst
- Wikipedia:Fall Out Boy
- Wikipedia:Nine Inch Nails
- Wikipedia:Panic! At The Disco
- Wikipedia:Courtney Love
Simulation in the music industry is not limited to just virtual music creation. There are also a variety of games available. Popular games include American Idol, Wikipedia:Rock Band, Wikipedia:Guitar Hero, and Wikipedia:DJ Hero, which allow 1+ players to simulate performances of modern and classic tunes. The virtual bands can include singers, bass players, guitar players, and drummers. The games utilize simulated instruments and controllers in place of real instruments and microphones. Shady O'Grady's Rising Star is another example of simulation used in entertainment in the music industry. The premise of the game is to see if you have what it takes to make it as a rock star. The role playing game allows users to experience the struggles and successes of up and coming musicians as you step into to the shoes of an 18 year old rookie. With the rising popularity of such games it looks like simulation in entertainment is just beginning its growth.
Amusement Park Rides
In addition to the dark rides and rollercoasters that we have grown to love at amusement parks, many modern parks are placing a greater emphasis on simulation technology. Unlike the traditional simulation technology seen in military, aviation, and medicine, the simulation used at amusement parks are designed primarily with user enjoyment in mind. Furthermore, rather than reacting to direct input from a user, simulation rides are often set to move in accordance with a pre-recorded script. Advancements in ride simulator technology has introduced the following elements into numerous attractions:
- “Build your own” rollercoaster
- Different scenes and endings
Motion Theaters Edit
One of the first simulator rides, Wikipedia:Star Tours, used a small theater in which the seats moved in accordance with a movie so that passengers felt as though they were really flying through space. Though Wikipedia:Disney Imagineering developed the first plans for a simulation ride in 1979, it was not until 1987 that Wikipedia:Star Tours was introduced into the parks. 
Today, many motion theater simulators are built upon the same principle as Wikipedia:Star Tours, though additional features may be added. At neighboring Wikipedia:Universal Studios (Orlando, FL), several motion theater rides are available. Previously, they included rides such as Wikipedia:Back to the Future: The Ride and Jimmy Neutron’s Nicktoon Blast. However, they were recently replaced with the new rides: Wikipedia:The Simpsons and Wikipedia:Despicable Me (which is 3D). Wikipedia:Disney has also kept up with the improving technology, as seen in Soarin’ over California. This high-tech ride features scents (such as citrus), wind blowing gently across passengers faces, as well as the moveable seats which mimic a hang glider. Another type of motion theater ride is seen in Universal's Wikipedia:Spiderman, which is a hybrid between a traditional motion theater and a dark ride. Physical animatronics are combined with high definition 4K screens and 3D glasses to provide an overall experience for passengers.
Individual Simulators Edit
This relatively new type of ride simulation allows passengers to feel even more engaged in the ride's events as well as ride customization in some cases. At Wikipedia:Disney Epcot, Sum of All Thrills, allows guests to choose between a rollercoaster, a bobsed, or a jet and then fully customize their ride experience. Next, riders step into a seat where a hood is lowered over their head and torso to give them a first person 3D view of their ride. Each ride vehicle is attached to a robotic arm which moves riders around according to their pre-selected ride features. Using a similar technology at Wikipedia:Universal Orlando, Harry Potter and The Forbidden Journey takes vistors on a ride that mimics flying through the air on a broomstick. A robotic arm is combined with high definition projection screens and lifelike audio-animatronics to create a unique experience.
List of Simulator Rides Edit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 http://design.osu.edu/carlson/history/lesson14.html
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 http://entertainmentdesigner.com/history-of-theme-parks/the-evolution-of-the-simulator-ride/
- ↑ Scaffolding cognitive and metacognitive processes in low verbal ability learners: Use of diagrams in computer-based training environments. Instructional Science, 30, 433-464
- ↑ Sottilare, R. & Proctor, M. (2012). Passively Classifying Student Mood and Performance within Intelligent Tutors. Educational Technology and Society. (in press).
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/home/asschui/Computer%20Games.PDF
- ↑ Atari Offers Largest Game Library. Electronic Games 1(1), 40-41
- ↑ http://www.leapfrog.com/en/index.html
- ↑ Allen, R. (2012). Games without tears, Wars without frontiers. In K. Stroekne (Ed.), War Technology Anthropology (pp. 83-93). United States: Bergahn Books
- ↑ Zyda, M. (2005). From Visual Simulation to Virtual Reality to Games. IEEE Computer Society, 38(9), 25-32
- ↑ Ashcraft, B. (2008). Arcade Mania! The Turbo-Charged World of Japan's Game Centers. Kodansha Internaiton, 90.
- ↑ Fine, G.A. (1983). Shared Fantasy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago
- ↑ Lipscomb, S.D. & Zehnder, S.M. (2004). Immersion in the virtual environment: The effect of a musical score on the video gaming experience. Journal of physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 23(6), 337-343.
- ↑ http://www.xbox360forum.com/xbox-forum/threads/50099-RPG-Examples
- ↑ "1. Timeline of computer animation in film and television". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computer_animation_in_film_and_television#cite_note-netzley50-22.
- ↑ Csusi, Charles. "Hummingbird". http://www.siggraph.org/artdesign/profile/csuri/artworks/plot/plot9.html.
- ↑ "A history of CGI in movies". Stikky Media. http://www.stikkymedia.com/articles/a-history-of-cgi-in-movies.
- ↑ "Greatest Visual and Special Effects (F/X) – Milestones in Film". AMC. http://www.filmsite.org/visualeffects11.html.
- ↑ "The Evolution of the Simulator Ride". http://entertainmentdesigner.com/history-of-theme-parks/the-evolution-of-the-simulator-ride/. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- ↑ "Disney Parks- Sum of All Thrills". http://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/tag/sum-of-all-thrills/. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
Article by Wikipedia:User:Jenleavens