First draft: old version of Wikipedia:Underground comix. Some content was merged to Wikipedia:Alternative comix, some was left out, some was left in the article
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Underground comix
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The term "underground comics" or "comix" describes the self-published or small press Wikipedia:comic books that sprang up in the US in the Wikipedia:1960s. The movement was initially centered in Wikipedia:San Francisco. Prominant artists associated with this movement include Wikipedia:Robert Crumb, Wikipedia:Robert Williams, Wikipedia:S. Clay Wilson, Wikipedia:Rick Griffin, Wikipedia:Gilbert Shelton, Wikipedia:Art Spiegelman and Wikipedia:Kim Deitch.

The term is sometimes applied more broadly to comics produced independently since the initial movement. Underground comics are noted for their lack of corporate control, which gives them the freedom to publish stories about literally anything, including subjects that many readers would consider shocking and offensive. These comics are often the product of a single author, as opposed to "mainstream" comics, which are usually produced by a team including a writer, a penciler, an inker, a letterer, and an editor.

The initial wave of underground comics was written by and for the Wikipedia:1960s counter-culture and Wikipedia:psychedelic movement, and a number of independent comics of this era were humorous (and unquestionably adult-oriented) stories about hippies and rebels who enjoyed sex and drugs, while putting up with persecution by evil police officers. As the genre grew and expanded, underground comics have ranged from small-press comics that grew to become mainstream (Wikipedia:Elfquest and Wikipedia:Cerebus the Aardvark), to comics created purely for artistic expression (Raw), to adult-oriented Wikipedia:pornography and humor (Cherry Poptart and Xxxenophile). They have filled a creative niche left by the glut of Wikipedia:superhero comic books published by mainstream companies such as DC and Wikipedia:Marvel Comics.

The creators of underground comics have found various ways to publish their work without the backing of a major comic-book publisher. 'Mini-comics' are typically reproduced on a photocopier, hand-stapled and distributed by mail-order. More established creators can have their work published by one of the many small comics publishers (companies such as Wikipedia:Fantagraphics Books, Rip-off Press, Slave Labor Graphics, Last Gasp and many others). The publishers also put together anthologies that collect short works from several different creators. More recently, there has been a surge of new creators posting their comics on the web, often for free or for a modest fee.

Some fans and artists use the term 'underground' comics (or "comix") to refer only to the first wave of independently produced comics, in the 1960s through about 1975. Later waves are sometimes referred to as 'independent', Wikipedia:alternative comics, 'art comics', 'Wikipedia:small press', or 'mini-' comics.

Notable Underground ComicsEdit