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Since the Roman goddess Venus is the goddess of love, in Western astrology the planet Venus is also associated with love. Venus is also associated with the principles of harmony, beauty, balance and the urge to unite. According to Marcus Manilius, Venus is generous and fecund, and presides over the left arm. In Wikipedia:Gustav Holst's musical composition Wikipedia:The Planets, Venus is called "The Bringer of Peace". Venus is the ruling planet of Taurus and Libra.
When the Norse and Germanic tribes came into contact with the Greco-Roman tradition of gods, they sought commonalities with the new gods in their own. They took the naming system of days of the week after gods from the Southern Europeans as well, giving English speakers the weekday names used today. Some variation on Venus is the name most used in other Latin European languages - Viernes in Spanish, etc, but the Germanic languages and English use Friday, after the name of the goddess Freya or Frigga, wife of Thor.
In astrology, the positions of heavenly bodies in the Earth sky is considered. This geocentric perspective makes for a few differences with the heliocentric one of astronomy. The Sun is a planet, and because the orbits of Mercury and Venus (WP) lie inside that of Earth's, they follow the Sun, never straying far from it, and move 'faster' than it does when they are not in retrograde motion.